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Bio Sem1 Vocab

cuticle (23) a waxy or fatty and watertight layer on the external wall of epidermal cells
spore (23) a reproductive cell or multicellular structure that is resistant to environmental conditions
sporophyte (23) in plants and algae that have alternation of generations, the diploid individual or generation the produces haploid spores
gametophyte (23) in alternation of generations, the phase in which gametes are formed; a haploid individual that produces gametes
archegonium (23) a female reproductive structure that produces a single egg and in which fertilization and development take place
antheridium (23) a reproductive structure that produces male sex cells in seedless plants
sporangium (23) a specialized sac, case, capsule, or other structure that produces spores
rhizome (23) a horizontal, underground stem that provides a mechanism for asexual reproduction
frond (23) the leaf of a fern or palm
sorus (23) a cluster of sporangia
gymnosperm (23) a vascular seed plant whose seeds are not enclosed by a fruit
angiosperm (23) a flowering plant that produces seeds within a fruit
ovule (23) a structure of seed plant that contains a female gametophyte and that develops into a seed after fertilization
seed (23) a plant embryo that is enclosed in a protective coat
pollen grain (23) the structure that contains the male gametophyte of seed plants
pollination (23) the transfer of pollen from the male reproductive structures (anthers) to the tip of a female reproductive structure (pistil) of a flower in angiosperms or to the ovule in gymnosperms
monocot (23) an angiosperm that produces seeds that have only one cotyledon
cotyledon (23) the embryonic leaf of a seed
dicot (23) an angiosperm that produces seeds that have two cotyledons
stamen (23) the male reproductive structure of a flower that produces pollen and consists of an anther at the tip of a filament
anther (23) the tip of a stamen, which contains the pollen sacs where pollen grains form
pistil (23) the female reproductive part of a flower that produces seeds and consists of an ovary, style, and stigma
fruit (23) a mature plant ovary; the plant organ in which the seeds are enclosed
dermal tissue (24) the outer covering of a plant
vascular tissue (24) the specialized conducting tissue that is found in higher plants and that is made up mostly of xylem and phloem
ground tissue (24) a type of plant tissue other than vascular tissue that makes up much of the inside of a plant
stoma (24) opening in a leaf or a stem of a plant that enables gas exchange to occur
guard cell (24) one of a pair of specialized cells that border a stoma and regulate gas exchange
xylem (24) the type of tissue in vascular plants that provides support and conducts water and nutrients from the roots
phloem (24) the tissue that carries organic and inorganic nutrients in any direction, depending on the plant's needs
vascular bundle (24) a strand of conducting tissue that contains both xylem and phloem
pith (24) the tissue that is located in the center of the stem of most vascular plants and that is used for storage
heartwood (24) the nonconducting older wood in the center of a tree trunk
sapwood (24) the tissue of the secondary xylem that is distributed around the outside of a tree trunk and is active in transporting sap
blade (24) the broad, flat portion of a typical leaf
petiole (24) the stalk that attaches a leaf to the stem of a plant
mesophyll (24) in leaves, the tissue between epidermal layers, where photosynthesis occurs
germination (24) the beginning of growth or development in a seed, spore, or zygote, especially after a period of inactivity
meristem (24) a region of undifferentiated plant cells that are capable of dividing and developing into specialized plant tissues
primary growth (24) the growth that occurs as a result of cell division at the tips of stems and roots and that gives rise to primary tissue
secondary growth (24) growth that results from cell division in the cambia, or lateral meristems, and that causes the stems and roots to thicken
apical meristem (24) the growing region at the tips of stems and roots in plants
lateral meristem (24) dividing tissue that runs parallel to the long axis of a stem or a root
transpiration (25) the process by which plants release water vapor into the air through stomata
tropism (25) the movement of all or part of an organism in response to an external stimulus
phototropism (25) a plant growth movement that occurs in response to the direction of a source of light
thigmotropism (25) a response of an organism or part of an organism to touch, such as the coiling of a vine around an object
gravitropism (25) the growth of a plant in a particular direction in response to gravity
photoperiodism (25) the response of plants to seasonal changes in the relative length of nights and days
dormancy (25) a state in which seeds, spores, bulbs, and other reproductive organs stop growth and development and reduce their metabolism, especially respiration
nastice movement (25) a type of plant response that is independent to the direction of a stimulus
photosynthesis (9) the process by which plants, algae, and some bacteria use sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce carbohydrates and oxygen
cellular respiration (9) the process by which cells produce energy from carbohydrates
ATP (9) adenosine triphosphate, an organic molecule that acts as the main energy source for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar, and three phosphate groups
ATP synthase (9) an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP
electron transport chain (9) a series of molecules, found in the inner membranes of mitochondria and chloroplasts, through which electrons pass in a process that causes protons to build up on one side of the membrane.
thylakoid (9) a membrane system found within chloroplasts that contains the components for photosynthesis
pigment (9) a substance that gives another substance or a mixture its color
chlorophyll (9) a green pigment that is present in most plant and algae cells and some bacteria, that gives plants their characteristic green color, and that absorbs light to provide energy for photosynthesis
Calvin cylce (9) a biochemical pathway of photosynthesis in which carbon dioxide is converted into glucose using ATP and NADPH
glycolysis (9) the anaerobic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate, which makes a small amount of energy available to cells in the form of ATP
anaerobic (9) describes a process that does not require oxygen
aerobic (9) describes a process that requires oxygen
Krebs Cycle (9) a series of biochemical reactions that convert pyruvate into carbon dioxide and water
fermentation (9) the breakdown of carbohydrates by enzymes, bacteria, yeasts, or mold in the absence of oxygen
character (12) a recognizable inherited feature or characteristic of an organism
trait (12) one of two or more possible forms of a character; a recognizable feature or characteristic of an organism
hybrid (12) the offspring of a cross between parents that have contrasting traits
generation (12) the entire group of offspring produced by a given group of parents
allele (12) one of two or more alternative forms of a gene, each leading to a unique trait
dominant (12) describes an allele that is fully expressed whenever the allele is present in an individual
recessive (12) describes an allele that is expressed only when there is no dominant allele present in an individual
genotype (12) a specific combination of alleles in an individual
phenotype (12) the detectable trait or traits that result from the genotype of an individual
homozygous (12) describes an individual that carries two identical alleles of a gene
heterozygous (12) describes an individual that carries two different alleles of a gene
Punnett square (12) a graphic used to predict the results of a genetic cross
probability (12) the likelihood that a specific event will occur; expressed in mathematical terms
pedigree (12) a diagram that shows the occurrence of a genetic trait in several generations of a family
genetic disorder (12) an inherited disease or disorder that is caused by a mutation in a gene or by a chromosomal defect
polygenic character (12) a character that is influenced by more than one gene
codominance (12) a condition in which both alleles for a gene are fully expressed
linked (12) in genetics, describes two or more genes that tend to be inherited together
gene (13) a segment of DNA that is located in a chromosome and that codes for a specific hereditary trait
DNA (13) deoxyribonucleic acid, the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics
nucleotide (13) in a nucleic acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar, a phosphate, and a nitrogenous base
purine (13) a nitrogenous base that has a double-ring structure; adenine or guanine
pyrimidine (13) a nitrogenous base that has a single-ring structure; in DNA, either thymine or cytosine
DNA replication (13) the process of making a copy of DNA
DNA helicase (13) an enzyme that unwinds the DNA double helix during DNA replication
DNA polymerase (13) an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the DNA molecule
RNA (13) ribonucleic acid, a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis
gene expression (13) the manifestation of the genetic material of an organism in the form of specific traits
transcription (13) the process of forming a nucleic acid by using another molecule as a template
translation (13) the portion of protein synthesis that takes place at ribosomes and that uses the codons in mRNA molecules to specify the sequence of amino acids in polypeptide chains
codon (13) in DNA and mRNA, a three-nucleotide sequence that encodes an amino acid or signifies a start signal or a stop signal
mutation (14) a change in the structure or amount of the genetic material of an organism
nondisjunction (14) a failure of homologous chromosomes to separate during meiosis I or the failure of sister chromatids to separate during mitosis or meiosis II
polyploidy (14) an abnormal condition of having more than two sets of chromosomes
operon (14) a unit of adjacent genes that consists of functionally related structural genes and their associated regulatory genes
transcription factor (14) an enzyme that is needed to begin and/or continue genetic transcription
intron (14) a nucleotide sequence that is part of a gene and that is transcribed from DNA into mRNA but not translated into amino acids
exon (14) one of several nonadjacent nucleotide sequences that are part of one gene and that are transcribed, joined together, and then translated
domain (14) in proteins, a functional unit that has a distinctive pattern of structural folding.
genome (14) the complete genetic material contained in an individual or species
plasmid (14) a genetic structure that can replicate independently of the main chromosome(s) of a cell
transposon (14) a genetic sequence that is randomly moved, in a functional unit, to new places in a genome
cell differentiation (14) the process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function during multicellular development
apoptosis (14) in mutlicellular organisms, a genetically controlled process that leads to the death of a cell; programmed cell death
Created by: katielucas16