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Vocablary for heredity, bacterial transformation and Reebops

Traits Characteristics
Genetics The study of heredity
Gregor Mendel Father of genetics
Allele Different forms of a single gene
Dominant Allele A variation of a gene that masks a recessive allele, it is represented by a capital letter when doing Punnett squares
Recessive Allele A variation that is hidden by a dominant allele, it is represented by a lower case letter when doing Punnett squares
Genes A segment of DNA that carry hereditary information from the parents to the offspring. They are the code for proteins and are found on chromosomes.
Genotype An organism's genetic makeup that 2 alleles that make up the gene. For example, TT or Bb or Yy
Phenotype The physical characteristics of an organism for example, brown hair, blue eyes, tongue roller is the trait that is physically seen.
Pure bred Both alleles for the gene are the same. For example BB, bb, tt or YY
Hybrid One allele for the gene is dominant and one is recessive. Hybrid genotypes always lead to dominant phenotypes.
Heredity The passing on of a trait from parents to offspring.
Punnet squares A chart used to help you figure out the probability of receiving a trait.
Probability In genetics, probability is the chance of getting a certain genotype or phenotype
The 23rd pair Females 23rd pair of chromosome is XX. Male 23rd pair of chromosomes is XY.
Cell division Body cells are made through cell division called MITOSIS.
Meiosis The type of cell division that creates sex cells. In sex cells there are half the number of chromosomes.
Number of chromosomes Human body cells have 46 chromosomes. Human sex cells have 23 chromosomes
Sex cells The female sex cell is the egg. The male sex cell is the sperm.
Asexual reproduction Unicellular organisms like bacteria and paramecium reproduce through asexual reproduction. Their DNA is copied and then the organism splits in half. Therefore, the end result is two organisms that look exactly alike
Sexual reproduction Multicellular organisms reproduce through sexual reproduction. Since the offspring's DNA is coming from both parents it will look similar to the parents but not be an exact copy.
Reebops Fictional organisms. Mainly found in the rainforest in South America. It is difficult to catch one because they are fast and clever.
Reebops - how many chromosomes 16 chromosomes, 8 pairs
Genetic Engineering Allows scientists to transfer genes, move genetic material, and manipulate genes from one organism to another. Transforming somethings DNA.
Plasmid The ring of DNA inside bacteria
Recombinant DNA Plasmid + Gene = Recombinant DNA
Created by: joshfoodim