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BIOL211

Majors Cellular: Vocabulary words.

TermDefinition
Oncology The study and treatment of tumors.
Carcinogen A substance capable of causing cancer in living tissue. Ex: arsenic
Mutagen An agent, such as radiation or chemical substances, that cause genetic mutation. Mutagens are likely carcinogens. Ex: UV light
Oncogenes A gene that in certain circumstances can transform a cell into a tumor cell.
Proto-oncogenes A normal gene, when altered by mutation, becomes an oncogene that can contribute to cancer.
Tumor A swelling part of the body, usually without inflammation, caused by an abnormal growth of tissue, whether benign or malignant.
Tumor-suppressor genes (antioncogene) A gene that protects a cell from one step on the path to cancer.
Benign tumor A mass of cells that lacks the ability to invade neighboring tissue or metastasize.
Malignant tumor A tumor that invades surrounding tissues, is usually capable of producing metastases, may recur after attempted removal, and is likely to cause death unless treated.
Metastasis The development of secondary malignant growths at a distance from a primary site of cancer.
Carcinomas Cancer in the epithelial tissue or lining of internal organs. Ex: breast cancer
Sarcomas A malignant tumor (cancer) of connective or nonepithelial tissue. Ex: osteosarcoma
Leukemias A malignant & progressive disease in which the bone marrow & other blood-forming organs produce increased numbers of leukocytes (WBC). Suppresses production of normal blood cells leading to anemia and other symptoms. Ex: adult T-cell leukemia
Lymphoma Cancer of the lymphatic system.
p53 gene A gene that is thought to play a role in regulating cell death or apoptosis, in suppressing tumors, in regulating the cell cycle, and in stopping the cell from dividing when DNA is damaged.
ras gene A family of genes that may cause cancer when they are mutated. They make proteins that are involved in cell signaling, cell growth, and apoptosis (cell death).
Homeotic genes Genes which regulate the development of anatomical structures in various organisms. Done via the programming of various transcription factors, affecting genes through regulatory genetic pathways. Ex: Hox genes
Homeobox Any of a class of closely similar sequences that occur in various genes and are involved in regulating embryonic development in a wide range of species.
Density-dependent inhibition Exhibited by most normal animal cells where they stop dividing once they reach a certain density.
Anchorage-dependent An increase in proliferation which is seen when cells are allowed to a solid surface.
Point mutation A mutation only affecting one or very few nucleotides in a gene sequence. Ex: nonsense mutations
Base-pair substitution A type of mutation that involves substitution or replacement of a single nucleotide base with another DNA or RNA molecule. Ex: transition
Silent mutation A form of point mutation resulting in a codon that codes for the same or a different amino acid but without any change in the functional protein product. Ex: one nucleotide triples but in a way it still codes for the same amino acid
Missense mutation A form of point mutation resulting in a codon that codes for a different amino acid, causing synthesis of a protein with an altered amino acid sequence during translation. Ex: sickle-cell disease
Nondisjunction In mitosis, the failure of sister chromatids to separate during and after mitosis. In meiosis, failure of homologous chromosomes to segregate or to separate during and after meiosis.
Aneuploidy Having a chromosome compliment that's not an exact multiple of the haploid, with either fewer or more than the normal number of chromosomes, which may be present in multiple copies or one of a homologous pair may be missing in a diploid. Abnormal.
Monosomic A rare chromosomal disorder in which there is a deletion (monosomy) of a portion of chromosome 9. Ex: Turner's syndrome
Trisomic An abnormal condition where there are three copies of a particular chromosome instead of two within a cell. Ex: downs syndrome
Polyploidy An organism or cell having more than half the haploid number of chromosomes; organisms that possess two sets of each chromosome. Ex: apple
Deletion A chromosome abnormality in which part of a single chromosome has been lost. Ex: point deletion
Duplication The act of repeating a region in the gene or chromosome. Ex: Pelizaeus-Merzbacher Disease (PMD)
Inversion A defect in the chromosome in which a segment of the chromosome breaks off and reinserted in the same place but in reverse direction relative to the rest of the chromosome. Ex: paracentric inversion and pericentric inversion
Translocation A chromosomal segment is moved from one position to another, either within the same chromosome or to another chromosome. Ex: Schizophrenia
Sex-linked gene A gene located in the sex chromosome.
X-linked gene On and travels with the x chromosome.
Barr body The small, dark-staining mass of inactive x chromosome within the nucleus of non-dividing cells.
Linked gene Genes that are inherited together with other gene(s), as they are located on the same chromosome. Ex: hemophilia
Epistasis The interaction between the genes at 2 or more loci, so the phenotype differs from what's expected if the loci were expressed indepently. The expressed phenotype is epistatic, while the altered/suppressed phenotype is hypostatic. Ex: male-pattern baldness
Pleiothrophy The single gene controlling or influencing multiple (possibly unrelated) phenotypic traits. Ex: phenylketonuria
Retrovirus Any of the group of viruses called Retroviridae. Characterized by having a single-strand RNA as genetic material, which it uses to incorporate to the genome of the host cell as a means to propagate. Ex: HIV
Bacteriophage (phage) A virus capable of infecting a bacterial cell and may cause lysis to its host cell.
Capsid The protein code surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus.
Virulent Extremely toxic, denoting a markedly pathogenic microorganism.
Viroids An infectious entity affecting plants, smaller than a virus and consisting of only nucleic acid without a protein coat.
Prions An infectious protein particle similar to a virus but lacking nucleic acid; thought to be the agent responsible for degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Ex:scrapie
Pandemic A disease that has spread over a wide geographical area. Ex: malaria
Adult stem cell (AS) Undifferentiated cells found throughout the body, dividing to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues.
Embryonic stem cell (ES) Stem cells derived from the undifferentiated inner mass cells of a human embryo. They are pluripotent, meaning they are able to grow (differentiate) into all derivatives of the three primary germ layers.
Totipotent The ability to differentiate into all cell types.
Operator A segment of DNA to which a transcription factor binds to regulate gene expression. The transcription factor is typically a repressor, which can bind to the operator to prevent transcription.
Operon A group of genes or segment of DNA that functions as a single transcription unit.
Lac operon A group of adjacent and coordinately controlled genes concerned with Escherichia coli. The first example of a group of genes under the control of an operator region which a lactose repressor binds to.
Repressor A regulatory protein that binds to an operator and blocks transcription of the genes of an operon.
Corepressor A substance that inhibits the expression of genes. They are small molecules in prokaryotes and proteins in eukaryotes.
Inducer A molecule that starts gene expression, which can bind to repressors and activators. They disable repressors (bind to the repressor), which results in expression of genes.
Cyclic AMP (cAMP) abbreviation for cyclic adenosine monophosphate and second messenger in biological processes.
Activator A DNA-binding transcription metabolite that positively moderates an allosteric enzyme or regulates genes by changing the rate of transcription.
Regulatory gene A gene involved in controlling the expression of one or more other genes. It may encode a protein or work at the level of RNA. Often code for repressor proteins in prokaryotes.
Created by: scandalouscanine