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Bio12 Enzyme

SLS Bio 12 Enzyme (R.L.)

TermDefinition
Activation energy The amount of energy that is required by a reaction in order for it to take place. Enzymes lower the activation energy of a reaction.
Biochemical reaction A chemical reaction involving molecules from one of the four classes of macro-molecules.
Coenzyme An organic complex, often containing vitamins that assist enzymatic function. Co-enzymes often either accept or contribute ions to the reactions as they proceed.
Competitive inhibitor A substrate-like molecule that can occupy an active site and prevent the substrate from forming the activated enzyme substrate complex with the enzyme.
Enzyme A type of protein that has the ability to change another molecule, called a substrate. through its physical association with it.
Enzyme activity The metabolic activity of cells is a result of the action of enzymes. At a more specific level, the activity of an enzyme will constitute one step in a metabolic process.
Enzyme concentration One of the many factors that can affect the rate of product formation during an enzymatic reaction. the higher the concentration the enzymes, the higher the rate.
Heavy metal Metals such as mercury and lead that influence enzyme function because of their large positively charged nuclei. When in close proximity to an enzyme, heavy metal ions can disturb the normal electron arrangement and cause denaturation.
Induced fit model A concept that uses the dynamic shapes of molecules to help explain enzyme function. (The same reasoning can be used to help explain facilitated transport)
Metabolism The chemical activities of a cell that are controlled by enzymes.
Non-competitive inhibitor A chemical substance that prevents an enzyme from functioning by affecting its shape. Their mode of action is in contrast to competitive inhibitors that will occupy an active site to prevent the enzyme from functioning.
pH A measure of the amount of hydrogen ions in a solution. pH 7.0 is neutral.
Proteins A polymer of amino acids; a polypeptide with a specific function. All proteins have at least two of the four possible phases of structure.
Substrate A reactant in an enzymatic reaction. Substrates are believed to form "activated" complexes with enzymes that facilitate the reaction.
Substrate concentration The relative amount of substrate molecules in the solution where an enzymatic reaction occurs. Substrate concentration has an impact on the rate of product formation.
Thyroid A large ductless gland in the neck that secretes hormones regulating growth and development through the rate of metabolism.
Thyroxin A hormone that accelerates cellular metabolism.
Vitamins A chemical substance that assists enzyme function.
Created by: rickli1