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Chapter 7

QuestionAnswer
Consciousness Awareness of self and the environment
Biological Rhythms Physiological periodic fluctuations (controlled by internal "biological clocks) ex. Annual cycles-migration 28 day cycle-female menstrual 24 hour cycle-varying and falling alertness,body temp, and growth hormones 90min cycle-various stages of sleep
Circadian Rhythm the biological clock; regular bodily rhythm that occur on a 24 hour cycle
REM Sleep (Rapid Eye Movement) sleep; A recurring stage where vivid dreams commonly occur. (AKA Paradoxical Sleep)-muscles are relaxed but other body systems are active
Alpha Waves Relatively slow waves of a relaxed, awake state
Sleep periodic,natural, reversible loss of consciousness, differ from Unconsciousness (Coma or hibernation)
Hullucinations false sensory experiences, seeing something that does not exist
Delta Waves Large, slow brain waves that associates with deep sleep
Insomnia Problems with falling asleep or staying asleep
Narcolepsy A sleep disorder characterized by uncontrolled sleep attacks,may cause one to lapse directly into Rem sleep at inopportune times
Sleep Apnea a sleep disorder characterized by a temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings
night terrors a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearance of being terrified; unlike nightmares, night terrors occur during stage 4 sleep, within 2 or 3 hours of falling asleep, and are seldom remembered.
dream a sequence of images, emotions, and thoughts, passing through a sleeping person's mind. Dreams are notable for their hallucinatory imagery, discontinuities, and incongruities, and for the dreamer's delusional acceptance and later difficulties remembering
manifest content according to Freud, the remembered story line of a dream (as distinct from its latent content)
Latent Content according to Freud, the underlying meaning of a dream (as distinct from its manifest content.) Freud believed that a dream's latent content functions as a safety valve.
Rem Rebound the tendency for Rem Sleep to increase following Rem Sleep Deprivation(created by repeated awakenings during REM sleep)
Hypnosis A social interaction in which one person(the hypnotist) suggests to another (the subject) that certain perceptions, feelings, thoughts, or behaviors, will spontaneously occur.
Posthypnotic Amnesia supposed inability to recall what one experienced during hypnosis; induced by the hypnotist's suggestion.
Posthypnotic suggestion a suggestion, made during a hypnosis session, to be carried out after the subject is no longer hypnotized; used by some clinicians to help control undesired symptoms and behaviors,
dissociation a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others
hidden observer Hilgard's term describing a hypnotized subject's awareness of experiences, such as pain, that go unreported during hypnosis.
psychoactive drug a chemical substance that alters perceptions and mood
tolerance the diminishing effect with regular use of the same dose of a drug, requiring the user to take a larger and larger doses before experiencing the drug's effect.
withdrawal the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
physical dependence a physiological need for drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued.
psychological dependence a psychological need to use a drug, such as to relieve negative emotions
depressants drugs (such as alcohol, barbiturates, and opiates) that reduce neural activity and slow body functions
stimulants drugs (such as caffeine,nicotine, and the more powerful amphetamines and cocaine) that excites neural activity and speed up body functions
hallucinogens psychedelic ("mind-manifesting") drugs, such as LSD, that distort perceptions and evoke sensory images in the absence of sensory input.
barbiturates drugs that depress the activity of central nervous system, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgement
opiate opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain and anxiety
amphetamines drugs that stimulate neural activity, causing speeded- up body functions and associated energy and mood changes,
ecstasy (MDMA) a synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen. Produces euphoria and social intimacy, but with short term health risks and longer term harm to serotonin-producing neurons and to mood and cognition.
LSD a powerful hallucinogenic drug; AKA acid(lysergic acid diethylamide.)
THC the major active ingredient in marijuana; triggers a variety of effects, including mild hallucinations
near-death experience an altered state of consciousness reported after a close brush with death (such as through cardiac arrest); often similar to drug-induced hallucinations
dualism the presumption that mind and body are 2 distinct entities that interact
monism the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing.
Created by: Bowenpsycho