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Clinical Research

Clinical Research Quiz 3 pt 3

TermDefinition
mixed methods research research in which the investigator collects and analyses data, INTEGRATES findings, and DRAWS INFERENCES using both qualitative and quantitative approaches/methods in a single study or program of inquiry
concurrent designs when t/ qualitative and quantitative data in MM study IS COLLECTED at the same time
sequential designs qualitative & quantitative data in MM study NOT collected at the same time
triangulation design obtaining different, but complimentary data about the central phenomenon under study; qualitative & quantitative data are collected simultaneously & w/ equal priority; notation: QUAL + QUAN
embedded design one type of data is used in a SUPPORTIVE capacity in a study based primarily on the other data type; either data can be dominant; notation: QUAL(quan) or QUAN(qual)
exPLANatory design sequential design w/ quantitative data collected in 1st phase, followed by qualitative data in 2nd phase; either data can be given stronger priority; notation: QUAN-->qual or quan-->QUAL[“PLAN-QUAN”]
exploratory design sequential design w/ qualitative data collected in 1st phase, followed by quantitative data in 2nd phase; either data can be given stronger priority; notation: QUAL-->quan or qual-->QUAN
identical sampling when exactly the SAME people are in both components of the study
nested sampling participants in qualitative strand are subset of participants in quantitative strand
parallel sampling sampling in t/ 2 strands are completely different, although usually drawn from same or similar population
multilevel sampling selecting samples from diff levels of a hierarchy—usually diff but related populations
meta-inferences a conclusion generated by integrating inferences obtained from results of the qualitative and quantitative strands of an MM study
qualitizing the process of reading and interpreting quantitative data in a qualitative manner
quantitizing the process of coding and analyzing qualitative data quantitatively
meta-matrix a 2-dimensional device used in a mixed methods study that permits researchers to recognize important patterns and themes across data sources
inference quality the believability and accuracy of the inductively and deductively derived conclusions from an MM study
inference transferability degree to which the mixed methods conclusions can be applied to other similar people, context, settings, time periods, & theoretical representations of the phenomenon
integrative framework for inference quality a framework that uses 2 broad families of criteria for evaluating quality: design quality and interpretive rigor; by Teddlie & Tashakkori
nursing intervention research studies that questions/test existing practices/innovations; shaped & guided by nursing’s values & goals, strong theory; informed by recent science advances, to improve the quality of care and health of those cared for
complex intervention an intervention in which complexity exists along one or more dimensions, including number of components, number or targeted outcomes, and the time needed for the full intervention to be delivered
intervention theory the conceptual underpinning of a healthcare intervention, which articulates the theoretical basis for what must be done to achieve desired outcomes
Effect size a statistical expression of the magnitude of the relationship btw 2 variables, or t/ magnitude of the diff btw groups on an attribute of interest; also used in metasynthesis to characterize the salience of a theme/category
Evidence-based practice (EBP) clinical problem-solving strategy that emphasizes t/ integration of best available evidence form disciplined research w/ clinical expertise and pt preferences
Fail-safe number in meta-synthesis, a estimate of the number of studies w/ nonsignificant results that would be needed to reverse the conclusion of a significant effect
Frequency effect size in meta-synthesis, indicates magnitude of findings; is the number of reports w/ unduplicated info that contain a given finding, divided by all unduplicated reports; the percentage of reports contain a given thematic finding
Funnel plot a graphical display that plots a measure of study precision (i.e. sample size) against effect size, to explore the possibility of publication bias
Grey literature unpublished, & thus less readily accessible papers or research reports
Intensity effect size in meta-synthesis, the percentage of all thematic findings that are contained in any given report
Inverse variance method in meta-analysis, using inverse of the variance of the effect estimate as the weight to calculate a weighted avg of effects
Magnitude
Manifest effect sizes next step in metasummary; effect sizes calculated form the manifest content pertaining to frequency and intensity effect sizes
Meta-data analysis the study of results of reported research in a specific substantive area of investigation by means of analyzing the “processed data”
Meta-method t/ study of the METHODologic rigor of studies included in metasynthesis
Meta-summary a type of analysis that lays the foundation for a metasynthesis, involving the development of a list of abstracted findings from primary studies and calculating manifest effect sizes (frequency & intensity effect size)
Meta-theory analysis of theoretical underpinnings on which studies are grounded
Primary studies original research investigations
Publication bias t/ tendency for published studies to over-represent statistically significant findings
Random effects model in meta-analysis, a model in which studies are not assumed to be measuring the same overall effect, but rather a distribution of effects
Sensitivity analysis An effort to test how sensitive the results of a statistical analysis are to changes in assumptions or in the way the analysis was done (e.g., In a meta-analysis, used to assess whether conclusions are sensitive to the quality of the studies included)
Subgroup analyses in meta-analysis, a type of strategy used to explore moderating effects on effect size; involves splitting the effect size info from studies into distinct categorical groups; ex: gender
Meta-regression in meta-analysis, an analytic approach for exploring clinical and methodologic factors contributing to heterogeneity of effects
Statistical heterogeneity diversity of effects across primary studies included in a meta-analysis
Created by: Fukanwa