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Clinical Research

Clinical Research Quiz 3 pt 1

TermDefinition
Archives a collection of historical documents or records providing information about a place, institution, or group of people.
Autoethnography/Insider research a type of ethnography involving self scrutiny (including study of groups or cultures to which researchers belong); demands researchers maintain consciousness of their role & monitor their internal state and their interactionsw/ other during the study
Being-in-the-world/Embodiment concept acknowledging people’s physical ties to their world thru senses, & are conscious through their bodies’ interaction w/ world; in-depth group
Bracketing in qual. Research, when researcher suspends knowledge about an experience; process of identifying & suspending preconceived beliefs/opinions about t/ phenomenon under study (step 1 in descriptive phenomenology)
Bricolage term referring to the deliberate mixing of qualitative methods and ways of thinking in order to address a specific issue or problem
Bricoleur A person who constructs bricolages, one who creates using whatever materials are available
Case study in-depth investigation of a single entity (or small number of entities), in attempt to analyze & understand issues import to its history, development, or circumstances
Cognitive anthropology/ Ethnoscience focuses on cognitive world of a culture, w/ particular emphasis on the semantic rules and shared meanings that shape behavior; i.e. the assumption that a group’s cultural knowledge is reflected in its language.
Constant comparison procedure in grounded theory analysis where newly collected data are compared in continuously w/ previously obtained data in attempt to assess similarity
Content analysis analysis of themes and patterns that emerge in the narrative content
Critical ethnography ethnography that focuses on raising consciousness in t/ group or culture under study in hopes of effecting social change; study done in Canada on communication, silence, and power
Critical theory an approach to viewing the world involving a critique of society, w/ t/ goal of envisioning new possibilities & effecting social change
Descriptive qualitative study qualitative studies w/o formal name
(descriptive phenomenology) careful description of ordinary conscious experience of everyday life—description of “things” as people experience them; i.e. sight, belief, memories, decisions, etc.; It involves 4 steps: bracketing, intuiting, analyzing, and describing
Discourse analysis a tradition seeking to understand the rules, mechanisms, & structure of conversations & texts; seeks to understand t/ action that a given kind of talk “performs”
Ecologic psychology focuses on the influence of the environment on human behavior, and attempts to identify interdependence on being affected by and affecting the environment one is in
Emergent design a type of design in qualitative studies that evolves as researchers make ongoing decisions reflecting what has already been learned
Emic perspective perspective of the group studied; i.e. what do participants say? t/ way MEMBERS of the culture envision their world
Ethnography the study of cultural patterns and experiences in a holistic fashion; studies tacit cultural knowledge. The researcher is t/ instrument i.e. fieldwork, participant observer, interviews with key informant
Ethnomethodologic experiment seeks to examine people's reactions to violations of commonly accepted social rules or norms
Ethnomethodology seeks to discover how people make sense of their everyday activities and interpret their social worlds, so as to behave in socially acceptable ways
Ethnonursing research coined by Leininger, it’s t/ study & analysis of t/ local or indigenous people’s viewpoints, beliefs, & practices about nursing care behavior & processes of designated cultures
Ethology the biology of human behavior; studies behavior as it evolves in its natural context; uses fieldwork
Etic perspective t/ way OUTSIDERS interpret experiences of a culture; i.e. how do I analyze what has been said? Look at theories with a "t" etic "T";
External criticism in historical research, t/ systematic evaluation of the authenticity and genuineness of data; ex. Find a diary written by past person, “is it her handwriting, is the paper of the right time period, is this the right writing style?”
Feminist research research seeking to understand how gender and a gendered social order shape women’s lives and their consciousness
Finding aids resources that tell researchers what’s in the archive
Formal grounded theory a theory about a substantive grounded theory’s core category that’s extended by sampling widely in a range of substantive areas
Grounded theory may use observation and interview to describe a social process; it is a constant comparison
Hermeneutics using LIVED EXPERIENCES as a tool for better understanding t/ social, cultural, political, or historical context in which the experiences occur; focuses on meaning & interpretation of object
Historical research histories or biographical social intellectual and technological that uses primary and secondary source data; systematic collection and critical evaluation of data relating to past occurrences
Internal criticism in historical research, an eval of WORTH of historical evidence; ex. question if a writer’s perspective of historical events are unbiased, was that author in t/position to make a valid report of occurrence, was t/ document writer competent?
Intuiting 2nd step in descriptive phenomenology; when researchers stay open to meanings attributed to the phenomenon by those who hv experienced it
Key informants a people knowledgeable about the phenomenon of research interest & who is willing to share info & insights w/ t/ researcher
Lived body (corporeality); the phenomenological fact that we are always bodily in the world; i.e. critical gaze: body may look awkward, & motions appear clumsy, but w/ admiring gaze: body may surpass its usual grace & its normal abilities
Lived human relation (relationality); the lived relation we maintain with others in the interpersonal space that we share with them
Lived space (spatiality): inquiring into the ways we experience spatial dimensions of our day-to-day existence; space in which we find ourselves affects the way we feel
Lived time (temporality); temporal dimensions of past, present, and future constituting the horizons of a person’s temporal landscape; our temporal way of being in the world (t/ subjective look at time in the future or past)
Macroethnography focuses on our culture polycon; research focused on BROADLY DEFINED CULTURES
Metasynthesis Analyzing facts & bringing together findings to form a conclusion
Microethnography “FOCUSED” community institution shared lifestyle, experience or event; i.e. specific illness or medical event; NARROWLY DEFINED CULTURES; fine-grained studies of either small units in a group or culture, or of specific activities in an organizational
Narrative analysis t/ focus on the STORY as the object of inquiry, to examine how individuals make sense of events in their lives;
Participant observation strategy in which ethnographers make observations of the culture while PARTICIPATING in its activities
Participatory action research (PAR) ENGAGES PARTICIPANTS in the process and goals of the research
Phenomenological reduction suspending judgment about the natural world to instead focus on analysis of mental experience
Phenomenology disciplinary roots in philosophy and psychology; focuses on meaning of lived human experiences; uses interviews for human experience; strives to understand t/ ESSENCE & meaning of a phenomenon; developed by Husserl & Heidegger
Primary source first hand information; i.e. original documents, relics, artifacts, diaries
Qualitative outcome analysis (QOA) evaluating nursing interventions for complex clinical phenomena
Researcher as instrument describes the significant role ethnographers play in analyzing and interpreting a culture
Secondary source 2nd or 3rd hand accounts of historical events or experiences; i.e. textbooks, ref bks, newspaper articles, (discussions/summaries of events written by those who didn’t participate in them)
Semiotics sometimes used by symbolic interactionists, this is t/ study of signs & their meanings
Substantive theory grounded data on a specific substantive area; i.e. postpartum depression; TRANSFERABLE, rather than generalizable, in the sense that elements of the context can be transferred to contexts of action with similar characteristics to the context under study
Symbolic interaction sociological and social-psychological tradition; focuses on the manner in which people make sense of social interaction & t/ interpretations they attach to social symbols, such as language
Tacit knowledge info about t/ culture that is so deeply embedded in cultural experiences that members don’t talk about it or may not even be consciously aware of it
Created by: Fukanwa