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6 Sci Test 5 Ch 3A

active a volcano that has erupted recently or is considered likely to erupt in the near future
caldera a huge, bowl-shaped depression formed when an empty magma chamber collapses after a volcanic eruption
chemical weathering natural acids slowly eat into a rock and break it apart
cinder cone volcano a volcano formed when eruptions composed mostly of tephra build up cone-shaped mountains
composite volcano a volcano formed when alternating layers of fluid lava & tephra build up a steep symmetrical mountain, often with a small crater at the top
core the innermost region of the earth
crater a depression at the top of a volcano
crust the outermost layer of the earth
dormant a volcano that erupted many years ago and although now inactive, may erupt again
earthquake any trembling or shaking of the earth's crust
epicenter the place at ground level that is directly above the focus of an earthquake
extinct a volcano that has not erupted in recorded history or is unlikely ever to erupt again
fault the break that appears at the boundary between two moving masses of rock
focus the point underground where an earthquake begins
fumaroles holes or cracks that serve as escape vents for underground gases
geologist a scientist who studies the structure of the earth
geology the study of the earth & its structure
Hawaiian eruption fluid lava surges from the vent like water from a fountain
lapilli fragments of tephra that are smaller than bombs and blocks but larger than volcanic ash; means "little stones"
lava molten rock after it reaches the earth's surface
magma melted rock underground
magma chamber a large reservoir located a few miles beneath the earth's surface containing magma
magnitude the strength of an earthquake
mantle the middle layer of the earth
mid-oceanic ridges an underwater mountain range in the ocean where plates of the earth's crust are moving away from each other
Moho the boundary between the crust & the mantle
physical weathering physical forces such as flowing water, ice, or windblown sand break down the rock
Plinian eruption hot clouds of gas and dust are expelled high into the air, usually quite violently
Richter scale the scale used to measure the strength of an earthquake
Ring of Fire a zone of volcanoes that encircles the edge of the Pacific Ocean
seismic belts the regions of the earth where most of the world's earthquakes occur
seismology the study of earthquakes
shield volcano a volcano formed when large amounts of fluid, runny lava gradually build up a dome-shaped mountain
Strombolian eruption globs of hot lava are flung into the air where they harden into volcanic bombs in a series of noisy but mild eruptions
tephra fragments of volcanic rock that form when thick magma explodes into pieces as it leaves the volcano
tsunami an enormous wave that can be caused by an earthquake
vent an opening in the ground through which a volcano erupts
volcanic ash the smallest fragments of tephra: resembles dust or fine sand
weathering a process that causes rocks to gradually break and crumble into smaller pieces
Created by: Mrs_CC