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Module #7 Test

Biology

QuestionAnswer
Define Genetics the science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring
Define Genetic Factors the general guideline of traits determined by a person's DNA.
Define Environmental Factors those "unbiological" factors that are involved in a person's surroundings such as the nature of the person's parents, the person's friends,and the person's behavioral choices.
Define Spiritual Factors the factors in a person's life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God.
Define Gene a section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein, thereby causing a trait.
Define Messenger RNA (mRNA) the RNA that performs transcription.
Define Anticodon a three nucleotide base sequence on tRNA
Define Codon a sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that transfers to a specific amino acid.
Define Chromosome DNA coiled around and supported by proteins found in the nucleus of the cell.
Define Mitosis a process of sexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells
Define Interphase the time interval between cellular reproduction
Define Centromere the region that joins two sister chromatids
Define Mother Cell a cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles.
Define Karyotype the figure produced when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs.
Define Diploid Cell a cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs
Define Haploid Cell a cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair
Define Meiosis the process by which a diploid cell forms gametes
Define Virus a non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics:1. It has genetic information inside a protective protein case.2. It cannot reproduce on its own.
Define Antibodies specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents.
Define Vaccine a weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen.
A DNA strand has the following sequence of nucleotides: guanine, cytosine, adenine, adenine, thymine, guaninea. What will the mRNA sequence be?b. How many amino acids will the mRNA code for?c.How many codons will the mRNA have?d.What are the anticodons on a. cytosine, guanine, uracil, uracil, adenine,cytosineb.2 amino acidsc.2 codonsd.guanine,cytosine,adenine and adenine, uracil, guanine
Fill in the blanks: a.__________ b.____________DNA------------>RNA --------------> Protein a.transcriptionb. translation
An RNA strand has an anticodon. Is it tRNA or mRNA? tRNA
Protein synthesis is occuring in a ribosome. Is this a part od transcription or translation? Translation
Suppose scientists determine that a set of genes are significantly more prevalent in murderers than in the population at large. Would that mean that murderers are not at fault for what they do? Why or why not? It would not mean that murderers have no fault for what they do. Most genes only establish genetic trends. Environmental and spiritual factors affect the extent to which you follow those trends.
If you look under a microscope and see distinct chromosomes in a cell, is the cell in interphase? no, chromosomes only pack into their condensed form during reproduction
List in order the four stages of mitosis. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase
The diploid number of a cell is 16. What is the haploid number? 8
The haploid number of a cell is 9. What is the diploid number? 18
What is the difference between a gamete and a regular animal cell? a gamete is haploid while a regular animal cell is diploid.
List all of the stages of meiosis. Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I, Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II, and Telophase II
Which is closer to mitosis: Meiosis I or Meiosis II? Meiosis II
A single cell with seven pairs of homologous chromosomes goes through meiosis I. How many cells result at the end of meiosis I? How many chromosomes exist in each cell? Are the chromosomes in each cell duplicated or not? 2 cells7 chromosomesyes, it is duplicated
Four cells that originally had seven pairs of homologous chromosomes go through meiosis II.How many cells are there? How many chromosomes exist in each cell? Are the chromosomes in each cell duplicated or not? 8 cells7 chromosomesno
What are the gametes produced in male animals called? What about female animals? males- spermfemale- eggs
How many useful gametes are produced in the meiosis of male animals? what about females? Males- 4Females- 1
What is the difference between a polar body and an egg? the polar body is non-functional female gamete, because it is far to small to function properly. An egg is the one female gamete produced by meiosis that is large enough to function properly.
Which gamete can move on its own: the male gamete or the female gamete? the male gamete
What is the purpose of the lytic pathway? the way in which viruses reproduce, killing the cells of the host.
If a virus uses DNA as its genetic material, is it alive? Why or why not? no, because it cannot reproduce itself, it fails to meet one of life's basic criteria.
A person decides to wait until he contracts measles before getting the vaccine. What is wrong with this stradegy? A vaccine is only good when you take it before your infected, so it can make antibodies to fight off the virus when the real thing comes.
Created by: liv2dance