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Respiratory Pharm

Stack #175401

DrugMOA/UseToxicity/adverse effects
H1 blockers, 2nd generation: loratadine, fexofenadine, desloratadine, cetirizine reversible inhibitors of H1 receptors; use: allergy far less sedating than 1st generation because of decreased entry into CNS
isoproterenol nonspecific beta-agonists: relaxes bronchial smooth muscle (beta2) tachycardia (beta1)
albeterol (beta2 agonist)relaxes bronchial smooth muscle (beta2); use: acute asthma exascerbation
salmeterol beta2 agonist; long acting agent for asthma prophylaxis tremor and arrhythmia
Methylxanthines: theophylline likely causes bronchodilation by inhibiting phosphodiesterase, thereby decreasing cAMP hydrolysis. Usage is limited because of narrow therapeutic index; metabolized by P450; Use: asthma cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity
Muscarinic antagonists: Ipratroprium competative block of muscarinic recptors, preventing bronchoconstriction; use:asthma, COPD
cromolyln prevents release of mediators from mast cells. effective only for prophylaxes of asthma. not effective for acute asthma attack. toxicity is rare
corticosteroids: beclomethasone, prednisone inhibit sythesis f virtually all cytokines. Inactivate NF-kB, the transcription factor that induces the production of TNF-alpha, among other inflammatory agents. 1st-line therapy for chronic asthma.
zileuton antileukotriene: a 5-lipoxygenase pathway inhibitor. blocks conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes.
zafirlukast, montelukast antileukotrienes; block leukotriene receptors. especially good for aspirin-induced asthma.
guaifenesin (robitussin) expectorants; removes excess sputum but large doses necessary; does not suppress cough reflex.
N-acetylcysteine expectorant: mucolytic->can loosen mucous plugs in CF patients. also used as an antidote for acetaminophen overdose.
H1 blockers, 1st generation: diphenhydramine, dimenhydrinate, chlorpheniramine reversible inhibitors of H1 receptors; use: allergy, motion sickness, sleep aid sedation, antimuscarinic, anti-alpha-adrenergic
Created by: hazelett