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ES 09.2 Groundwater

Terms associated with groundwater.

QuestionAnswer
water that has penetrated and is stored within Earth's crust ground water
empty spaces between grains in soil or rock that can hold water pores
the amount of pore space within soil or rocks porosity
area within soil and/or rock whose pores are completely filled with groundwater zone of saturation
upper boundary of the zone of saturation water table
area above the water table where soil or rock pores contain only air zone of aeration
ability of a material to let water pass through it permeability
permeable sediment (or rock) with large, interconnected pores that store groundwater aquifer
layer of material (ex: silt, clay, shale) that are barriers to groundwater flow aquiclude
natural discharge of groundwater where Earth's surface intersects an aquifer spring
a natural (and gentle) discharge of groundwater whose temperature exceeds 37 celsius hot spring
a hot spring that discharges water and steam explosively, often regularly geyser
corrosive solution formed from combination of carbon dioxide with water carbonic acid
mineral in limestone dissolved slowly by acidic groundwater calcite
a natural chamber inside Earth formed when limestone dissolves cave
a natural depression on Earth's surface formed when underlying limestone dissolves and the surface collapses sinkhole
a dripstone (cave formation) formed when calcite precipitates from water dripping from the cavern ceiling stalactite
describes water that contains high concentrations of Ca, Mg, Fe, and/or other minerals hard water
hole constructed in the ground to reach below the water table and access groundwater (ordinary) well
localized area around a well where the water table drops due to overpumping cone of depression
process of restoring water removed by a well, often due to precipitation recharging
hole dug into an aquifer under pressure that spurts water like a fountain artesian well
overuse, pollution, chemical runoff, coastal salt, and radon threats to the water supply
largest aquifer in the U.S. (located in midwest) Ogallala Aquifer
Created by: goakley