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Wiles--Module 7

Wiles--Cellular Transport--Module 7 Review

What type of molecules act as "carriers" in facilitated diffusion? proteins
What is the definition of osmosis? water molecules move through a selectively permeable membrane from greater to lesser concentration.
What is the definition of hypertonic? contains more solute molecules and less water molecules
What word describes a solution that has the same solute and water concentrations as the cell? isotonic
What word would describes a solution which has fewer solutes than the cell it contains? hypotonic
What phrase describes our cell membranes since some molecules are allowed to pass but others are stopped? selectively permeable
What solution is used to test for the presence of starch? iodine or Lugol's
What solution is used to test for the presence of glucose? Benedict's
Unicellular pond organisms such as Amoeba have an organelle that rids themselves of excess water. What is the name of this organelle? contractile vacuole
Give three types of passive transport. diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion by carrier proteins or channel proteins
Any type of cellular transport that requires cellular energy is termed _____. active transport
Cellular energy in the form of _____ is used in active transport. ATP
What cellular organelle releases ATP for the cell to use? mitochondria
What type of endocytosis takes in large amounts of fluids? pinocytosis
What type of endocytosis takes in large particles, such as entire cells? phagocytosis
Define homeostasis. A stable, internal environment maintained by our body.
What is the goal of diffusion and osmosis? (dynamic) equilibrium
What color will iodine turn in a solution if starch is present? black
What is the scientific term for the shrinking of a cell due to loss of water? plasmolysis
What is the scientific term for the bursting of a cell due to gaining too much water? cytolysis
What type of pressure does water exert on the plasma membrane and thus the cell wall of a plant? turgor pressure
A type of active transport by which large molecules are passed to the outside of a cell is ______. exocytosis
What are the two major types of molecules which comprise the cell membrane? phospholipids and proteins
What is the name of the model that describes and explains the composition of our cell membranes? fluid mosaic model
Our cell membranes are a _____ of phospholipids, meaning there are 2 layers of them. bilayer
What type of molecule do our cells most often transport by facilitated diffusion using a coupled channel? glucose
The substance doing the dissolving in a solution is called the ____. solvent
What is the universal solvent? water
The substance being dissolved in a solution is called the _____. solute
How do molecules in passive transport acquire their kinetic energy? What is the name of this process? through random molecular collisions called Brownian motion; as molecules hit each other, they bounce off, travel in a straight line until they hit another molecule...............transferring kinetic energy to other molecules with each collision
Give four factors which affect solubility. temperature, pressure, concentration gradient (concentration difference), size of solute particles, solubility of particles
What type of a cell is an erythrocyte? red blood cell
What will happen to a rbc if placed in a hypertonic solution? shrink or plasmolysis
What will happen to a rbc if place in a hypotonic solution? it will grow or gain mass; could cytolosize if the concentration gradient is large
True or false. Brownian motion still occurs at equilibrium. true
A charged particle is called a(n) ___. ion
What are four types of ions generally transported through ion channels? calcium, potassium, chlorine, and sodium
True or false. The carrier proteins used in facilitated diffusion are specific. true
Give three types of active transport. pumps, endocytosis, and exocytosis
How many sodium ions are pumped in one cycle of the sodium-potassium pump? In what direction? 3 sodium ions are pumped out of the cell
How many potassium ions are pumped in one cycle of the sodium-potassium pump? In what direction? 2 potassium ions are pumped into the cell
What type of cells within the human body are known as phagocytes? white blood cells or wbc's
What are the membrane-bound pouches formed during endocytosis called? vesicles
What cellular organelle will fuse with vesicles to digest the contents taken in during phagocytosis? lysosomes
What organs are not working properly if one is having to undergo dialysis? kidneys
What word describes the structure of starch and explains why it would not travel through the dialysis tubing? it is a polysaccharide which is a is too large of a molecule to travel through the plasma membrane
By what process do water molecules travel through a membrane from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration? osmosis
What will happen to cell size when placed in an isotonic solution? stay the same size
What is the name of the acid in vinegar? acetic acid
What is the general term for the chemical known as sodium chloride (NaCl)? salt
What will happen to turgor pressure in potato cells if placed in distilled water? it will increase
If a salt solution is 35% salt, what percentage of water comprises the solution? 65% water
What factor determines the direction of diffusion & osmosis? down the concentration gradient (from greater to lesser concentration)
What metric prefix means 1000? kilo-
What metric prefix means 1/100? centi-
What nutrient constitutes the greatest percentage of your body cells? water
What percent solutes is distilled water? 0% solutes
Why can distilled water not be given via IV to a dehydrated patient? the water difference (concentration gradient) will be so great that water will rush quickly into the patient's cells, thus resulting in cytolysis and possibly death.
What type of solution will result in low turgor pressure within carrot cells? hypertonic solution
The phospholipid's tails (which are comprised of two fatty acids) are _____, or "fear water". hydrophobic
If a cell is 85% water, what is its solute concentration? 15% solutes
By what process would ink or dye molecules spread out in a beaker of water? diffusion
What is the definition of biology? study of life
What is the definition of a cell? basic unit of life
Would a dilute or a concentrated solution have more solutes in relationship to the solvent present? concentrated
Give two reasons why molecules might have to be transported through the cell membrane with facilitated diffusion or diffusion through channel proteins or using carrier proteins. Molecules might be too large or too small to diffuse easily across the cell membrane or the molecules might not be soluble in lipids
Why are the proteins involved in active transport called "pumps" rather than carrier proteins? Because in active transport they move molecules against the concentration gradient (from lower to higher concentrations); also known as up the concentration gradient
Molecules that are soluble in _____ will diffuse the easiest across the cell membrane. lipids
hypertonic : plasmolysis :: hypotonic : ______ cytolysis
What does "pino-" mean in Latin? to drink
What does "phago-" mean in Latin? to eat
Explain the relationship between plasmolysis and turgor pressure. As a cell loses water from being placed in a hypertonic environment, turgor pressure decreases and the cell shrinks known as plasmolysis.
What is the fluid outside a cell called? interstitial fluid
By what process would large hormone molecules (macromolecules) be secreted from cells? exocytosis
When the concentration of molecules are the same throughout a space this is known as __________. (dynamic) equilibrium
What does "cyto-" mean in Latin? cell
How can someone smell cologne that has been applied to another person, even if they are in a draft free room? The cologne evaporates and diffuses out from the wearer.
Why do plant cells not cytolosize in hypotonic solutions? The cell wall will prevent the cell from bursting; turgor pressure will greatly increase though
True or false? There is no net movement of molecules when a cell is placed in an isotonic environment. True; molecules will move equally into and out of the cell; however, the cell will remain the same size and there is no NET movement.
Channel proteins embedded in the plasma membrane that allow water to pass through are known as _____________. aquaporins
What type of transport is analogous to a susbstance taking a "piggy-back ride" into or out of a cell with another substance that uses an active transport pump? coupled transport
What color will a substance exhibit if sugars are present once combined with Benedict's solution and heated? some shade of orange......light orange (fewer amount of sugars) to dark brownish orange (larger amount of sugars)
Created by: lburris
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