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Env Science Week 12

Week 12 Vocabulary for Environmental Science

atmosphere the layer of gases surrounding our planet; mostly consists of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide today
ozone made of 3 atoms of oxygen (O3), found in the upper atmosphere, helps absorb harmful UV rays from the sun
troposphere layer of atmosphere closest to earth, where our weather occurs, 75%+ of our atmosphere is in this layer
stratosphere 2nd layer, above troposphere, 24% of the atmosphere is in this layer, holds the ozone layer
mesosphere 3rd layer, shooting stars burn up here, cold with very few molecules
thermosphere 4th layer, very few molecules, large temperature fluctuations, very hot due to closeness to the sun
exosphere almost no molecules, gradually leads out into space
ionosphere begins in the mesosphere and extends out through the thermosphere, electrified region where the Northern lights (auroras) can be seen
radiation transfer of energy through space
conduction transfer of energy from one object to another when they are touching
convection transfer of energy through air or water currents, as a fluid heats up, it rises, then it sinks as it cools down
weather atmospheric conditions at any given time in any given place (what is it doing right now)
climate an average of all the weather variations during the year (cold winters, mild summers, etc.)
latitude the distance from the equator measured from north to south in degrees
density mass/volume, (heavy vs light)
convection currents cycles of flowing air due to warm air rising and cold air sinking
wind movement of air within the atmosphere
Coriolis Effect winds do not move in straight lines. The rotation of the Earth causes winds to curve
jet stream a band of high altitude, swiftly moving westerly winds
polar front jet The jet stream found over North America
Topography elevation of land above sea level
NOAA National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration
tornado a vortex with swirling winds up to 220 miles per hour or more, form where warm, moist air meets cold, dry air
Latent heat the hidden heat that is found in the molecules of water vapor
inversion where moist, warm air gets trapped beneath warm, dry air under a stable layer of cold, dry air
Hurricanes produce extreme winds, which can wreak havoc on shoreline communities, form in the Atlantic and Eastern Pacific oceans,produced when warm, moist air rises over the heated waters of the equator
eye the center of the hurricane
lake effect in the winter, the land quickly loses its heat while the water slowly cools as winter sets in, keeping the air on and near the shoreline warmer than the temperatures found further inland
Gulf Stream ocean current that originates in the warm waters of the Gulf of Mexico, carries warm water to areas of the earth that don't get much energy from the sun, creates a mild climate in places like England
Created by: jodytwining