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Earth Science Test 4

TermDefinition
What percentage of the Earth's surface is represented by oceans and marginal seas? 71%
Northern Hemisphere Land hemisphere
Southern Hemisphere Water Hemisphere
Oceanography the interdisciplinary study of the oceans that draws on geology, biology, chemistry, and physics
Pacific Ocean the largest ocean and has the greatest depth
Atlantic Ocean about half the size of the Pacific ocean and not quite as deep
Indian Ocean slightly smaller than the Atlantic ocean, largely a southern hemisphere ocean body
Bathymetry the measurement of ocean depths and the charting of the shape of topography of the ocean floor
Eco Sounder also referred to as sonar
High Resolution Mulitbeam Sonar provided a picture but not the depth
Multibeam Sonar an improvement from side-scan sonar and does provide water depth
Radar Altimeters bounces microwaves off the sea surface from space to measure surface irregularities
Passive Continental Margins found along most coastal areas that surround Atlantic ocean
Continental Shelf the flooded extension of the continent. will be land in the future and has been land in the past
Continental Slpoe marks the seaward edge of the continental shelf
Submarine Canyons deep, steep-sided valleys cut into the continental slop
Turbidity Currents down-slope movements of dense, sediment-leden water
Continental Rise located at the base of the continental slop and found in areas where trenches are absent
Active Continental Margins continental slope descends abruptly into a deep-ocean trench
Accretionary Wedge accumulations of deformed sediment and scraps of ocean crust
Deep-Ocean Trenches long, relatively narrow features created due to subduction where moving lithospheric plates plunge into the mantel
Challenger Deep the deepest point within the trench
Volcanic Islands Arcs two oceanic plates converge
Continental Volcanic Arcs oceanic and continental convergence
Abyssal Plain deep, incredibility flat ocean feature
Seamount an isolated submarine volcano that rises 3000 ft above the ocean floor
Guyots a submerged flat-topped seamount
Coral Atoll continuous or broken ring of coral reef surrounding a central lagoon
Mid-Ocean Ridge an elevated ridge in the center of each ocean with extensive faulting where new sea floor is always forming
Sediment Sources turbidity currents sediment that slowly settles to the bottom from above
Terrigenous Sediments material weathered from continents most common on continental margins
Biogenous Sediments the shells and skeletons of marine animals and plants
Hydrogenous Sediment minerals that crystallize directly from seawater
Salinity the average seawater s 3.5% saline the total amount of solid material dissolved in the water
Low-Latitudes receive more direct sunlight and the water will have a higher temperature
High-Latitudes receive less sunlight and have a cooler temperature
Dead Sea ten times as saline as average sea water and therefore much more dense
Surface Mixed Zone a sun warmed zone and relatively shallow
Transition Zone temperature falls with depth between surface layer and deep zone
Deep Zone sunlight never reaches this zone and temperatures are just above freezing
Density the mass per unit volume
Plankton floaters that depend on ocean current to move around
Nekton swimmers that are capable of moving independently of the ocean currents
Benthos bottom dwellers in shallow to deep water
Marine Live Zones several factors are used to divide the ocean into distinct marine live zones
Photic Zone upper part of the ocean that is sunlit
Apothic Zone deep ocean no sunlight
Intertidal Zone area where land and ocean meet and overlap
Neritic Zone seaward from the low tide line, the continental shelf, out to the shelf break
Oceanic Zone beyond the continental shelf
Hydrothermal Vents metal sulfides are precipitated when heated water meets the cold abyssal water
Pelagic Zone open ocean of any depth
Neritic Zone includes any sea-bottom surface
Abyssal Zone subdivision of benthic zone
Ocean Currents masses of water that flow from one place to another
Surface Currents develop from friction between the ocean and the wind that blows across the surface
Gyre any large system of rotating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements
Coriolis Effect the deflection in the wind direction due to earths rotation
Downwelling surface waters are drawn downward
Upwelling deep waters are pushed upward by wind; brings nutrients up to the surface
Factors for creating dense mass of water Temperature and salinity
Deep-Ocean Circulation a simplified model of ocean circulation is similar to a conveyor belt
Shoreline contact between land ans sea
Shore area between lowest tidal level and highest areas affected by storm waves
Coastline the seaward edge of the coast
Beach accumulation of sediment along the landward of sediment along the landward margin of the ocean
Crest top of a wave
Trough bottom of wave
Wave Height the vertical distance between a trough and a crest
Wavelength the horizontal distance between successive crests or troughs
Wave Period the time interval for one full wave to pass a fixed position
Wave Refraction the bending of a wave
Beach Drift sediment moves zigzag pattern along beach face
Wave-Cut Cliff originate sue to the cutting action of the surf against the base of coastal land
Wave-Cut Patteren a relatively flat, bench-like surface left behind the receding cliff
Marine Terraces occur when a wave-cut cliff is uplifited above the sea by tectonic forces
Spit a ridge of sand extending from the land into the mouth of an adjacent bay with and end that often hooks landward
Baymouth Bar a sandbar that completely crosses a bay
Tombolo a ridge of sand the connects an island to the mainland
Rouge Wave unusually large wave
Hard stabilization building structures to control coastline erosion and deposition
Groins barriers built at a right angle to the beach that are designed to trap snad
Breakwaters barriers built offshore and parallel to the coast to protect boats from braking waves
Seawalls structure that armors the coast against the force of breaking waves
Beach Nourishment by adding sand to the beach system, storm protection is improved and beach is widened
Emergent Coast more land is exposed
Submergent coast less land id exposed
Marine Terraces terraces that were once being eroded flat at sea level that have been tectonically uplifted
Estuaries flooded river valleys
Fjords flooded glacial valleys
Tides daily changes in the elevation of the ocean surface
Spring Tide occur during new and full moons
Neap Tide will occur during the first and third quarters of the moon
Flood Current advances into coastal zone
Ebb Current current moves seaward
Weather day to day and occurs over a short period of time
Climate occurs over a long period of time
Water vapor forms clouds and precipitation
Aerosols tiny solid and liquid particles and reflect sunlight
Ozone a form of oxygen that combines 3 oxygen atom into each molecule
Radiosonde an instrument carried aloft by a weather balloon, to gather and transmit meteorological data
Troposphere the bottom layer of the atmosphere
Stratosphere between 12 km and 50 km above the Earth and the temperature increases at the top because this is where the ozone layer is concentrated
Mesosphere between 50 km and 80 km above Earth and temperature decreases steadily
Thermosphere does not have a well defined upper limit and gasses are moving at high speeds
Rotation spinning on its axis
Revolution the movement of Earth in its orbit abound the sun
Summer Solstice Earth is tilted 23 1/2 degrees toward the sun
Winter Solstice Earth is tilted 23 1/2 degrees away from the sun
Fall/Spring Equinox suns rays are located at the equator
Conduction the transfer of heat through molecular activity
Convection the transfer of heat through movement within substance
Radiation doesn't need a medium to travel through like conduction/convection, and can travel though a vacuum
Reflection process where light bounces back from an object at the same angle at which it encounters a surface and with the same intensity
Scattering produces a larger number of weaker rays that travel different direction, with the most energy dispersed in the forward direction
Isotherm a line connecting places of equal temperature
Created by: kmeseke