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Eye Assessment

Assessing the eye including Diagnostic Tests

Snellen Chart Series of progressively smaller rows of letters or images, used to test distance vision. Pt stands 20' from chart and reads smallest line that he or she can see. Test each eye separately.
Basic eye assessment includes ocular history, patients chief complaint or concern, visual auity test, external eye exam, & diagnostic evaluation. What is a diagnostic evaluation? Evaluation of the eye using direct ophthalmoscopy (hand held opthalmoscope), indirect ophthalmoscopy (instrument used by ophthalmologist to see larger areas of the retina, unmagnified), or evaluation using a Slit-Lamp (binocular microscope mounted on tabl
Which cells are responsible for color vision? Photoreceptor cells
Color vision test Screen test of color; dots or primary color are intergrated into a background of secondary colors. Patients with diminished color vision may not be able to ID the hidden shapes. Pts with central vision conditions have more difficulty ID colors that those
Amsler Grid Test often used for pts with macular problems. Tests each eye separately. Pt stares at central fixation spot on the grid and reports any distortion in the squares of the grid itself. Macular problems may present as squares looking faded, lines being wavy.
Ultrasonography Probe placed against the eye aims the beam of sound. High frequency sound waves emitted are bounced back from the lesion and displays the sound waves on a special screen. Used to ID orbital tumors, retinal detachment and changes in tissue composition.
Color Fundus Photography Used to detect retinal lesions. Major nursing considerations - visual acuity diminished for approx. 30 minutes after procedure due to retinal bleaching by intense flashing lights.
Fluorescein Angiography Used for diagnosis of abnormalities of blood vessels, evaluates macular edema, macular capillary nonperfusion & neovascularization in age related macular degeneration. Invasive procedure due to IV sodium fluorescein, med noted in retinal vessels within 10
Tonometry Measures IOP, determining the amount of force necessary to indent or flatten a small area of the anterior globe of the eye. Measured in mm/HG.
Gonioscopy Visualizes angle of anterior chamber to ID abnormalities in appearance and measurements.
Perimetry Testing Evaluates field of vision. Normal: 65 degrees upward, 75 downward, 60 inward, 95 outward. Most useful in detecting blind areas in the visual field in macular degeneration & peripheral field defects in glaucoma.
Created by: ariley4444