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Catastrophic Events

lessons 10-17 Earthquake

earthquake the shaking that results from the movement of rock beneath Earth's surface
crust the layer of rock that forms Earth's outer surface
fault a break or crack in Earth's lithosphere along which the rocks move
mantle the layer of hot,solid material between Earth's crust and core
lithosphere a rigid layer made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust
lithospheric plate several plated that glide around the Earth's mantle
seismologist a sciencist that studies earthquakes
s-wave a type of seismic wave that moves the ground up and down or side to side
p-wave a type of seismic wave that causes building to contracct and expand
surface wave the most powerful wave on the surface
focus the pint beneath the surface lithosphere along which the rocks move
epicenter the point on Earth's surface directly above an earhquake's focus
seismic waves vibrations that travel through through Earth carrying the energy released during earthquake
magintude the measurement of an earthquake strength based on seismic waves and movement along fault
tsunami a gaint wave usually caused by earthquake beneath the ocean floor
liquefaction the process by which an earthquake's violent movement suddenl turns loose soil into liquid mud
aftershock an earthquake that occurs after an larger earthquake in the same area
base isolators these pads separate, or isolate,a building from its foundation and prevent some of an earthquake's energy from entering the building
tension ties these devices firmly "tie" the floors and ceiling of a building to the walls. They absorb and scatter earthquake energy and thus educe damage
shear core walls these transfer some of a quake's energy from roofs and floors to the building foundation
cross braces these are placed between stories to stiffen a building's frame and absorb energy during an earthquake
mass dampers or dampers these work like the shock absorbers in a car to absorb some of the energy of seismic waves
flexible pipe water and gas pipes have flexible joints. they bend as energy passes through them, greatly reduce damage.
stress a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume
tension stress that stretches rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle
compression stress that squeezes rock until it folds or breaks
strike-slip fault a type of fault where rocks on either side move past each other sideways with little up-or-down motion
normal fault a type of fault where the hanging wall slides downward; caused by tension in the crust
reverse fault a type of fault where hanging wall slides upward; caused by compression in the crust
plateua a landform that has high elevation and a more or less level surface
hanging wall the block of rock that forms the upper half of a fault
foot wall the block of rock that forms the lower half of a fault
shearing stress that pushes masses of rock in opposite directions , in a sideways movement
mercali scale measures how much damage is caused after an earthquake
richter scale is a rating of an earthquake due to seismic waves
inner core is a dense ball of solid metal is the most inner layer
outer core a layer of molten metal that surrounds the inner core
basalt a dark-colored rock that makes up most of the oceanic crust
granite a light-colored rock that makes up most of the continental crust
asthenosphere soft layer just below the lithosphere
continental crust the crust that lies beneath land
oceanic crust the crust that lies beneath oceans
divergent boundary a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
convergent boundary a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
transform boundary a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions
subduction zone the process by which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate boundary
Created by: 1965120436