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Pharm

Pediatric

QuestionAnswer
Tx ADHD Ritalin (methylphenidate) CNS Stimulant PO
Tx ADHD Dexadrine (dextroamphetamine) CNS Stimulant PO
GI Stimulant GERD Nausea Reglan (metroclopramide) antiemetic PO, IV, IM
GERD reflux Prevacid (lansoprazole) antiulcer agent PO
Seizures (tonic-clonic) anticonvulsant Tegretol (carbamazepine) anticonvulsant antiseizure PO
Seizures (grand mal) sedative febrile Phenobarbitol anticonvulsant sedative PO, IM, IV
Tx Asthma inflammatory allergic response Prednisone (corticosteroid) PO
Tx Asthma inflammatory allergic response Solu-Medrol (methylprednisone) cotocosteroid, anti-inflam PO,IM,IV,Rect
Tx mild pain, fever Tylenol (acetominophen) antipyretic non-opiod analgesic PO, Rect
Don't use for Peds.. only exception is for 2 types of cardiac issues Aspirin (salicylates) antipyretic, non-opiod analgesic PO,Rect
Enuresis Diabetes Insipidous DDAVP (demopressin) hormones, antidiuretic Nasal
Antidote for Iron poisinig d/t blood transfusions Desferal (deferoxamine) antidotes IM, IV, SQ
decreases HR increases myocardial efficiency Digoxin (antiarrythmics, gigitalia glycosides, inotropics) IV, PO
Edema from CHF (associated w/cogential heart disease), hepatic or renal disease, HTN Lasix (furosemide) loop diuretic PO< IM< IV
Pancreatic insufficiency assoc w/CF Pancrease (pancrelipase) digestive agent pancreatic enzyme PO
Nocturia Enuresis; spina bifida Ditropan (oxybutynin) urinary tract antispasmodic, anitcholinergics PO
Severe HTN, decreases myocontractibility and O2 demand Procardia (nifedipine) antihypertensive calcium channel blocker PO
Infections, highly resistant otitis media (given IM if parents non-compliant Rocephin (ceftriaxone) antiinfective 3rd generation Cephalosporin IM,IV
Tx TB (w/other agents) elimination of meningococcal (bacterial) meningitis Rifampin (antitubercular, rifmycins) PO,IV
Tx MRSA, staphylococcal infections, pneumonia, when less toxic agents are contrindicated Vancomycin (antiinfective, antibiotics) IV
Tx serious gram (-) infection/staph PCN resistant infection, used in combo w/other agents in mgmt of serious enterococcal infections Gentamycin (antiinfetive, aminoglycoside, antibiotic) IM,IV
Chicken pox, shingles, viral infections Acyclovir (antiviral, purine analogues) PO,IV
Local anesthetic, prior to minor procedres EMLA cream (lodocaine/prilocaine) anesthtic-topical/local
Sedation prior to MRI/Xray Chloral Hydrate )sedative) PO
Asthma, prevent exercise induced bronchospasm Ventolin/Albuterol (bronchodilator) PO, INH
Increase intravascular fluid, Tx nephrotic syndrome (lose protein in urine)= relief of assoc anemia Albumin (volume expander) IV
Increases dopamine and norepinephrine levels = stim of inhibitory system of CNS Ritalin (methylphenidate) CNS Stimulant PO
Increases dopamine and norepinephrine levels = stim of inhibitory system of CNS Dexadrine (dextroamphetamine) CNS Stimulant PO
Stimulates motility of upper GI tract and increases lower esophageal sphincter tone. Blocks dopamine receptors at chemoreceptor trigger zone. Reglan (metroclopramide) antiemetic PO, IV, IM
Binds to enzyme in presence of acidic grastric pH, preventing final transport of hydrogen ions into gastric lumen. Results in decreased accumulation of acid in gastric lumen Prevacid (lansoprazole) antiulcer agent PO
Decreases synaptic transmission in CNS by affecting Na= channels in seizure prevention Tegretol (carbamazepine) anticonvulsant antiseizure PO
Prod all levels of CNS depression. Depresses sensory cortex, motor activity, alter cerebellar fx. Raisese siezure threshold, can speed up enzymes in liver that metab drugs, bilirubin, etc. Phenobarbitol anticonvulsant sedative PO, IM, IV
Suppress inflammation and normal immune response Prednisone (corticosteroid) PO
Suppress inflammation and normal immune response Solu-Medrol (methylprednisone) cotocosteroid, anti-inflam PO,IM,IV,Rect
Inhibits sythesis of prostaglandins that serve as mediators of pain and fever in CNS. No sigif anti-inflam action or GI toxicity Tylenol (acetominophen) antipyretic non-opiod analgesic PO, Rect
Produces analgesia, reduces inflammation and fever by inhibition production of prostaglandins, also decreases platelet aggregation Aspirin (salicylates) antipyretic, non-opiod analgesic PO,Rect
Analogue of anti-diuretic hormone (vasopressin) DDAVP (demopressin) hormones, antidiuretic Nasal
Chelates unbound iron, forming a water-soluble complex that is easily excreted by the kidneys. Desferal (deferoxamine) antidotes IM, IV, SQ
Increases the force of myocardial contraction. Prolongs refractory period in AV node, increases CO and slows HR Digoxin (antiarrythmics, gigitalia glycosides, inotropics) IV, PO
Blocks reabsorption of Na+ and H20 in proximal renal tubule and interferes w/reabsorption of Na+ Lasix (furosemide) loop diuretic PO< IM< IV
Contains lipolytic, amolytic, proteolytic activity. Increases digestion of fats, carbs, and protein in GI tract Pancrease (pancrelipase) digestive agent pancreatic enzyme PO
Direct spasmolytic action (stimulates CNS to stimulate smooth muscle) on smooth muscle, including lining of GU tract Ditropan (oxybutynin) urinary tract antispasmodic, anitcholinergics PO
Relaxes smooth muscle causing arteriolar vasodilation, decreases peripheral vascular resistance Procardia (nifedipine) antihypertensive calcium channel blocker PO
Bind to bacterial cell wall membrance causing cell death. Bactericidal action Rocephin (ceftriaxone) antiinfective 3rd generation Cephalosporin IM,IV
Inhibits RNA synthesis by bocking RNA transcription in susceptible organisms + bactericidal action Rifampin (antitubercular, rifmycins) PO,IV
Bind to bacterial wall = cell death Vancomycin (antiinfective, antibiotics) IV
Inhibit protein synthesis at level of 30S ribosome (bactericidal) (Gentamycin antiinfetive, aminoglycoside, antibiotic) IM,IV
Interferes w/viral DNA synthesis Acyclovir (antiviral, purine analogues) PO,IV
Inhibits transport of ions across neural membranes; prevent initiation and conduction of normal nerve impulses EMLA cream (lodocaine/prilocaine) anesthtic-topical/local
Acts at many levels of CNS to produce anxiolytic effect; depress CNS=sedation, relief of anxiety Chloral Hydrate )sedative) PO
Bronchodilator, relaxes smooth muscle in airways Ventolin/Albuterol (bronchodilator) PO, INH
Provides collodial oncotic pressure, which serves to metabolize fluid from extravascular tissues back into intravascular space. Requires concurrent admin of appropriate crystalloid Albumin (volume expander) IV
Ritalin (methylphenidate)CNS Stimulant PO MOnitor ht/wt, BP, nutrtional status. Teach to take in the AM for max effectiveness in school and decreased insomnia periods. Give w/meal if appetite decreased. Teach structure, consistency, drug holidays
Dexadrine(dextroamphetamine)CNS Stimulant PO MOnitor ht/wt, BP, nutrtional status. Teach to take in the AM for max effectiveness in school and decreased insomnia periods. Give w/meal if appetite decreased. Teach structure, consistency, drug holidays. USE LOWEST effective dose
Reglan(metroclopramide)antiemetic PO, IV, IM Monitor bowel sounds, use w/caution if Hx of depression, HTN
Prevacid(lansoprazole)antiulcer agent PO Admin before meals at set time Q/day, may sprinkle med on applesauce, pudding, cottage cheese, yogurt. Look for and report S/S jaundice
Tegretol(carbamazepine)anticonvulsant antiseizure PO Assess frequency, location, duration and characteristics of seizure activity. Have pt report fever, sore throat, mouth ulcers, easy bruising, unusual bleeding, dark urine pale stools, jaundice immediately. Do not stop med abruptly
Phenobarbitol anticonvulsant sedative PO, IM, IV Monitor respirator status, BP, pulse esp w/IV admin. Respiratory depression is dose dependent. Assess location duration, characteristics of seizure activity. Do not stop med abruptly.
Prednisone(corticosteroid)PO Keep away from highly populated areas to decrese risk of exposure to infections (playroom). Avoid vaccines w/o consulting MD 1st. Instruct to notify is severe abd pain, tarry stools, unusual wt. gain, tiredness, bone pain, nonhealing sores, and visual di
Solu-Medrol(methylprednisone)cotocosteroid, anti-inflam PO,IM,IV,Rect Keep away from highly populated areas to decrese risk of exposure to infections (playroom). Avoid vaccines w/o consulting MD 1st. Instruct to notify is severe abd pain, tarry stools, unusual wt. gain, tiredness, bone pain, nonhealing sores, and visual di
Tylenol(acetominophen)antipyretic non-opiod analgesic PO, Rect Assess pain, fever. Monitor for S/S hepatotoxicity due to overdose. Teach parents about infant drops and syrup. DROPS ARE 10X CONCENTRATION OF SYRUP
Aspirin(salicylates)antipyretic, non-opiod analgesic PO,Rect DON'T give for fever assoc w/virus, influenza, chickenpox -Reye's Syndome! Monitor level periodically w/prolonged high dose therapy, esp kids w/ Kawasaki's. Monitor for S/S toxicity = tinnitus, HA, hyperventilation, agitation, mental confusion, lethargy
DDAVP(demopressin)hormones, antidiuretic Nasal Intranasal irritating to tissue. Monitor freq of enuresis throughout therapy
Desferal (deferoxamine)antidotes IM, IV, SQ IV or SQ over evening hours
Digoxin(antiarrythmics, gigitalia glycosides, inotropics)IV, PO Measure HR (apical 1 full minute) before admin. DO NOT GIVE IF <80 child or <100 infant
Lasix(furosemide)loop diuretic PO< IM< IV Watch labs, monitor I/O's, listen to lung sounds, monitor for dehydration. Encourage food high in K+
Pancrease(pancrelipase)digestive agent pancreatic enzyme PO Give w/ or before meals. Can open capsule and sprinkle on foods. Med destroyed by acid. Use w/sodium bicarb or antacids. Pt should follow diet high in calorie, protein, and low in fat.
Ditropan(oxybutynin)urinary tract antispasmodic, anitcholinergics PO Monitor voiding pattern; assess for bladder distention; safety NOT established in kids <5yo
Procardia(nifedipine)antihypertensive calcium channel blocker PO Monitor BP, pulse. Monitor ECG periodically for prolonged use, I/O's. Assess for signs of CHF. Pt on Digoxin concurently should be monitored for dig level routinely. COmes in XR capsule -open and give SL if necessary.
Rocephin(ceftriaxone)antiinfective 3rd generation Cephalosporin IM,IV Obtain cultures. Asses for Hx of PCN. Observe for s/s anaphylaxis. ***Unique med that can be given in 24 hour single dose IM or IV
Rifampin(antitubercular, rifmycins)PO,IV Administer on empty stomach (1hour before/2hrafter meal) w/full glass of water. May admin w/food if GI upset.
Vancomycin(antiinfective, antibiotics)IV Irritating to tissues - monitor IV site. Assess bowel status. Evaluate ototoxicity (8th cranial), kidney function. Children ,2yr are esp at risk for fatal hepatotoxicity Give over 1-2 hours
Gentamycin antiinfetive, aminoglycoside, antibiotic)IM,IV Obtain cultures. Monitor peak and trough levels. Evaluate for ototoxicity, I/O's for hydration status and renal function
Acyclovir (antiviral, purine analogues)PO,IV Keep adequately hydrated, topical products not approved for Pedi use
EMLA cream(lodocaine/prilocaine)anesthtic-topical/local Do not put on open sores, contraindicated infants ,6mos who are receiveing methemoglobin-inducing agents. Use cautiously in pts ,20kg or 37 weeks. Apply 1-2 hours before procedure
Chloral Hydrate )sedative)PO Monitor RR, pulse ox, given PO 60 min prior to procedure. Monitor VS during therapy
Ventolin/Albuterol(bronchodilator)PO, INH Assess lungs, observe for paradoxical bronchospasm (wheezing) If present, stop med and call MD. Place in puffer, aerosol, does come in liquid form.
Albumin(volume expander)IV Assess s/s vascular overload (rales/crackles, HTN, juglar sistention), monitor Hgb/Hct, VS, I/O, hydration status
Ritalin (methylphenidate)CNS Stimulant PO Anorexia, HTN, tach, growth retardation, insomnia, nervouseness, decreased appetite
Dexadrine(dextroamphetamine)CNS Stimulant PO Hyperactivity, insomnia, restless, tremor, depression, palpitatons, tach, anorexia, dry mouth, N/V, metallic taste, HTN, dependence
Reglan(metroclopramide)antiemetic PO, IV, IM Restless, anxious, drowsy, fatigue, suicidal ideation, diarrhea, urinary freq, neutropenia, rash, tremors, mouth swelling, EPS, tradive diskinesia
Prevacid(lansoprazole)antiulcer agent PO Dizziness, HA, diarrhea, abd pain, nausea, fatigue, GI bleed
Tegretol(carbamazepine)anticonvulsant antiseizure PO Blurred vision, agranulocytosis, aplstic anemia, dizziness, leukocytopenia, fatigue, atxia, dry mouth, hypotension, rash, syncope, urinary hesitancy, LOC decreased WBC, GI upset
Phenobarbitol anticonvulsant sedative PO, IM, IV Drowsiness, depressed respiratory system, vomiting. fever, CNS hangover, delirium, depression, hypotension, constipation, diarrhea, N/V
Prednisone(corticosteroid)PO DecreaSed wound healing, muscle wasting, stomach ulcers, weight gain (fluid retention), hunger, cushingold,increased hair, mood swings, depression, euphoria, HA, HTN, anorexia, acne, N/V, hypokalemia, intense metabolic effects, INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
Solu-Medrol(methylprednisone)cotocosteroid, anti-inflam PO,IM,IV,Rect DecreaSed wound healing, muscle wasting, stomach ulcers, weight gain (fluid retention), hunger, cushingold,increased hair, mood swings, depression, euphoria, HA, HTN, anorexia, acne, N/V, hypokalemia, intense metabolic effects, INCREASED SUSCEPTIBILITY TO
Tylenol(acetominophen)antipyretic non-opiod analgesic PO, Rect Hepatic failure, hapatotoxicity, renal failure (high/chronic use) rash
Aspirin(salicylates)antipyretic, non-opiod analgesic PO,Rect GI bleed, bleeding general, dyspepsia, epigastric distress, heartburn, nausea, anorexia, hemolysis, increased bleeding time
DDAVP(demopressin)hormones, antidiuretic Nasal Hypernatremia, water toxicity (FVE), drowsiness, HA, listlessness, rhinitis, HTN, vulval pain
Desferal (deferoxamine)antidotes IM, IV, SQ Red urine (can stain), anemia, diarrhea, erythema, hypotension, tachy, abd pain, leg cramps, ototoxicity
Digoxin(antiarrythmics, gigitalia glycosides, inotropics)IV, PO S/S of dig toxicity- halo effect, fatigue, arrythmias, anorexia, hypokalemia, N/V, brady, prolonged P-R-T interval. FVE
Lasix(furosemide)loop diuretic PO< IM< IV Hyponatremia, hpovolemia, muscle cramps, electrolyte imbalance. Causes excretion of K+ and chloride, N/V, diarrheas, ototoxicity, dermatitis, postural hypotension
Pancrease(pancrelipase)digestive agent pancreatic enzyme PO Diarrhea, nausea, stomach cramps, nasal stuffiness, dyspnea, SOB, abd pain, hematura, hives
Ditropan(oxybutynin)urinary tract antispasmodic, anticholinergics PO Dry mouth, dizziess, weakness, blurred vision, N/V, urinary retention, tach, allergic rx, photophobia, contipation
Procardia(nifedipine)antihypertensive calcium channel blocker PO HA, blurred vision, tinnitus, fainting, hypotension, diarrhea, dry mouth, N/V, nocturia, polyuria, increased sweating, wt. gain, muscle cramps, flushing
Rocephin(ceftriaxone)antiinfective 3rd generation Cephalosporin IM,IV Seizures (high doses), pseudomembranous colitis, diarrhea, N/V, cramps, yeast infection, thrush, serum sickness
Rifampin(antitubercular, rifmycins)PO,IV Red discoloration body fluids, adb pain, diarrhea, flatulence, heartburn, N/V, loss of appetite, Jaundice
Vancomycin(antiinfective, antibiotics)IV Nephrotoxicity, "RED NECK" syndrome, ototoxicity, phlebitis, anaphylaxis, N/V, back and neck pain, hypotension
Gentamycin antiinfetive, aminoglycoside, antibiotic)IM,IV Nephrotoxicity,ototoxicity, impaired renal function
Acyclovir (antiviral, purine analogues)PO,IV Seizures, renal failure, HA, diarrhea, N/V, pain, phlebitis, trembling, bleeding
EMLA cream(lodocaine/prilocaine)anesthtic-topical/local Blanching, redness,itching, edema, alt in temp sensation
Chloral Hydrate )sedative)PO sleepiness, depressed respirations, drowsiness, hangover, pain at IM site, constipation, N/V, diarrhea
Ventolin/Albuterol(bronchodilator)PO, INH Tachy, excitement insomnia, nervous, restless, tremor, chest pain, palpitaions
Albumin(volume expander)IV same as blood transfusion rx (fever, chills, low back pain), HA, fluid overload, HTN, hypotension, tachy, increased salivation,rash, N/V
Created by: tweedledee