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physiology

endocrine system

QuestionAnswer
increases water retention thus reducing water volume and prevents dehydration. Its part of the pituitary hormones and its also called vasopressin because it can cause vasoconstriction ADH (Antidiuretic hormone
Its produced in hypothalamus and transported by the hypothalmus hypophyseal tract to posterior lobe. Posterior pituitary hormone
A surge of hormones released during sexual arousal and orgasm, feelings of sexual satisfaction & emotional bonding between partners, it stimulates labor contractions during birth & stimulates milk and bonding for mother and baby OT(Oxytocin)
The rates of secretions are not constant for pituitary and regulated by hypothalamus, other brain centers and feedback from target organs
releasing hormones and inhibiting hormones from hypothalamus ex in cold weather the pituitary stimulated by hypothalamus to release TSH, leads to generation of body heat anterior lobe control
neuroendocrine reflex hormone released in response to nervous system signals ex. sucking infant stimulates nerve endings-- hypothalamus to posterior lobe to Oxytocin to milk ejection, hormone release in response to higher brain center posterior lobe control
emotional stress can affect secretion of gonadotropins, affecting menses, ovulation, fertility, also milk ejection reflex can be triggered by a crying baby posterior lobe control
it has widespread effects on the body tissues esp. cartilage, bone, muscle, and fat. it induces the liver to produce growth stimulants insulin-like growth factors protein synthesis increases and lipid metabolism increase growth hormone
endocrine gland, epithalamus. after age 7, undergoes involution to 75% end puberty synchronize physiologic functions with 24 hour circadian rhythms of day light & night synthesizes melatonin from serotonin during night regulate timing of puberty, pineal gland
its occurs in winter or northern climates. symptoms are depression, sleepiness, irritability, and carbohydrate craving. getting 2-3 hours of sunlight reduces these signs by reducing the melatonin SAD (seasonal affective disorder
plays a role in three systems endocrine, lymphatic,& immune. site of maturation T cells important in immune defense secretes hormones stimulate development of other lymphatic organs & activity of T-lymphocytes such as thymopoietin thymosin and thymulin thymus
cell mediated immunity and goes through a process of self selection T- cells
largest endocrine gland, increases metabolic rate, 02 consumption, heat production, appetite, GH secretion, alertness & quicker reflexes. thyroid follicles - sacs that compose most of thyroid, secretes thyroxine & trilodothyronine converted to T3 thyroid gland
parafollicular cells secretes calcitonin with rising blood calcium stimulates osteoblast activity and bone formation thyroid gland
secretes calcitonin with rising of blood calcium. parafollicular cells
lowers blood calcium calcitonin
usually 4 glans partially embedded in posterior surface thyroid gland, secretes PTH increases blood calcium levels. - increases absorption of calcium - promotes synthesis of calcitriol, increases bone reabsorption, decreases urinary excretion parathyroid glands
small gland that sits on top of each kidney - adrenal cortex and medulla formed by merger of two fetal glands with different origins and functions adrenal glands
has dual nature acting as an endocrine gland and sympathetic ganglion of sympathetic nervous system- when stimulated release catecholamines and a trace of dopamine directly into the bloodstream Adrenal medulla
by mobilizing fatty acids for energy, GH produces glucose-sparing makes glucose available for glycogen synthesis and storage carbohydrate metabolism part of growth hormone
promotes Na+, K+, AND CL- retention by kidneys, enhances Ca+ absorption in intestines. bone growth, thickening, & remodeling influenced esp. childhood& adol.,secretion high 1st 2 hours of sleep, peak in response to vigous exer. decrease with age electrolyte balance in growth hormone
stimulates the secretion of thyroid hormone TSH
after birth stimulates mammary glands to synthesize milk, enhances secretions of testosterone by testes PRL
stimulates mitosis and cellular differentiation GH
Stimulates adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids ACTH
the study of the endocrine and the diagnosis and treatment of its disorder endocrinology
organs that are traditional sources of hormones endocrine gland
glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones endocrine system
chemical messengers that are transported by the bloodstream and stimulate physiological responses in cells of another tissue or origin often a considerable distance away hormones
secreted into the tissue fluids to affect nearby cells paracrine hormones
released from neurons to travel across synaptic cleft to second cell neurotransmitters
have ducts that carry secretions to an epithelial surfaces or the mucosa of the digestive tract - external secretions extracellular effects (food digestion) exocrine system
no ducts contains dense, fenestrated capillary networks which allows easy uptake of hormones into blood stream, internal secretions, intracellular effects such as altering target cell metabolism endocrine gland
it enters blood stream and binds to kidneys and vessels hypothalamus and pituitary
several chemicals function as both hormone and neurotransmitters norepi, cholecystokinin, thyrotropin-releasing hormone, dopamine and antidiuretic
those organs or cells that have receptors. for a hormone and can respond to it target organs or cells
shaped like a flattened funnel, forms floor and walls of third, regulates primitive functions of the body from water balance and thermoregulation to sec drive and childbirth hypothalamus
suspended from hypothalamus by a stalk infundibulum, housed in sella turcica of sphenoid bone size and shape of kidney bean, 2 structures with independent origins and separate functions anterior and posterior pituitary
anterior pituitary adenohypophysis
posterior pituitary neurohypophysis
constitutes anterior 3/4 of pituitary, linked to hypothalamus by hypophyseal portal system the primary capillaries connected to secondary in this by portal venules, hypothalamic hormones regulate cells adenohypophysis
constitutes the posterior 1/4 of the pituitary, nerve tissue not a true gland nerve bodies in hypothalamus pass down stalk as hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract & end in posterior lobe, hypothamic neurons secrete hormones that stored in neuronhypophysis until neurohypophysis
hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones travel from hypothalamus to anterior pituitary hypophyseal portal system
Created by: Tgraffagnini