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WOT is an ANIMAL? -multicellular • no cell walls -heterotrophs – obtain carbon from other organisms -embryos show gastrula stage • blastula to gastrula • its complex looking -collagen – a fiberlike protein (in tendons, collagen) -motile
WOW SUCH DIVERSITY HOW EXPLAIN? • Selection pressure (predation, environmental) • Niches → niches • Cellular (mutation, etc)
What's in your developmental tool kit, kid? tissue layers, bilateral symmetry, central nervous system, coelom
Tissue, glorious tissue. diploblasts vs triploblasts • both have ectoderm – skin & nervous system • both have endoderm – lining of digestive tract • both have digestive cavity • only triploblast has mesoderm – circulatory system, muscle, organs, bones o only diploblast has non-living....jelly layer
Radial vs bilateral symmetry • bilateral is rotifer down to chordates o bilateral has 1 plane of symmetry like humans & crabs o has anterior & posterior end o also dorsal & ventral side • radial is that everything is arranged around a central point o like a jellyfish
Advantages to bilateral symmetry? Distinct head and tail • Helps move in directed ways through the environment  Find prey  Seek shelter • specialization of sensation organs at front end for guidance • specialization of structures on sides  movement  sensing the environment
LEARN A SHITTY CHART
How about that central nervous system, doe? • radial symmetry o senses all around o diffusive nervous net • bilateral symmetry o directional sensation o clustered nervous system o focus on sensation in head (cephalization) o bilateral organisms don’t have nerve net
coelom – tube within a tube o Acoelomates - flatworms • no cavity outside digestive tract o Pseudocoelomates - nonsegmented worms • body cavity doesn’t completely surround the internal organs o Coelomates - segmented worms • body cavity completely surrounds internal organs
Why do we like a coelom? o hydrostatic skeleton Contraction of muscles against H2O pressure in cavity = movement in a direction o protection of organs. Fluid filled cavity cushions against hard blows and body twists o expansion of organs (digestive tract, enhancing function)
What's a hydrostatic skeleton like...or something? squeezing a water balloon?
What's in ya GENETIC tool kit? hox genes – group of similar genetic codes. that's it.
Hox genes p1 • group of related genes that control body plan of an embryo along the anterior posterior axis • they specify identity of body segments • are homologous • more hox genes, more diverse animals • just bilateral animals
Hox genes p2 small variation in location and timing of expression of hox genes gives tremendous variation in body plans • add segmentation and this allows for very specialized functions along the anterior-posterior body axis
Diversification of life habits -features promoting functional diversity • sensory organs o light sound touch smell taste electromagnetic fields • types of feeders o suspension fluid • movement limbs o lobe like, jointed, tube feet, tentacles • reproduction (in sharks, KNOW)
Shark babymaking o viviparous • nourish embryos internally/birth live young • umbilical o oviparous • deposit fertilized eggs, embryos nourished by yolk o oviviparious • retain eggs internally/birth live young • no umbilical • intrauterine cannibalism
Why we like plants part 1 -fuels & energy • fossil fuels (coal) • wood burning • artificial photosynthesis to create energy -food • duh • 12,000 ya domestication -secondary compounds • pharmaceuticals • rubber, solvents, oils, glue, dyes, waxes, insecticides, fragrance,
Why we like plants part 2 taste -quality of life • gardening #1 hobby in US • importance of wild places to mental health -oxygen production • byproduct of photosynthesis -carbon sink -holds soils & slows runoff -primary producers
know main synapomorphies of SHITTY PLANT TREE OG red algae vs green algae: chloroplasts Green algae vs nonvascular plants: ability to live on land Nonvascular plants vs seedless plants: vascular tissue Seedless plants vs gymno/angiosperms: seeds Gymno vs. angio: seeds protected within ovary
origin of chloroplasts • came from cyanobacteria? o Very similar internal membrane structure (physical) o If you put it in a phylogenetic tree, it makes sense o Microscope data supports (molecular)
ability to live on land • aquatic, then evolved for land • cuticle – waxy stuff that limits water loss • stomata – Closed at night because obviously not photosynthesis. Guard cells will open when they’re full of water, close when they’re dry. gas exchange & water management
vascular tissue • simple water conducting cells (cellulose), vascular tissue (rigidity), tracheids (conductivity between cell walls), vessel elements (allowed water to go up) • water & nutrient transportation (against atmospheric pressure)
lignin like a plant skeleton. Polymer of sugars & alcohols. Allowed plants to get higher. When they got gaps, the water could go up
Seed types • angiosperms o have seeds inside ovary (deciduous) • gymnosperms o have seeds not in ovary • dicots are paraphyletic. Don’t really fit into unicots • magnolias are neither monocots or eudicots, but are definitely angiosperms
Seed facts o includes an embryo and nutrients encapsulated into a tough coat o dormancy ensures that seeds do not germinate until conditions are favorable o effective way to disperse the next generation
nutrient transport in plants most sugar stored in roots. phloem transport sugars from leaves to roots. Water is transported in the xylem. Then transport & intake of nutrients in roots. Enhanced through carbohydrates. Sugars can jump to plants in the surrounding area
Key features of angiosperm -flowers • stamen - pollen • ovaries - eggs -pollination -double fertilization -fruits (ripened ovary)
SHITTY ANGIOSPERM CHART with the stamen and the ovary and the fruit and the sporophyte
Ecology & Physiology of Angiosperms part 1 alteration of generations -angiosperms compromise about 80% of all current land -seeds protected -sporophyte is mature diploid -gametophyte is a haploid -meiosis in anther • microspore is haploid • pollen grain is 3 total cells
Ecology & Physiology of Angiosperms part 2 -meiosis in carpel • carpel is ovary with megasporangium • haploid ovary that undergoes mitosis -double fertilization • creates diploid zygote • then somehow triple fertilization and it’s an endosperm • fruit, dispersal, adult plant
Pollinators -insects like purple & yellow -hummingbirds like red -some flowers pretend to be female insect -seed dispersal • Velcro • Sticker plants • Floaty types • Coconuts • Ants eating the outside • Drilling into the soil
Created by: haleyBUGoxox