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Unit 2 Human Body

Human Body

TermDefinition
Zygote Cell that forms when a male gamete fertilizes a female gamete
stem cell Cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated
determination process by which stem cells become committed to develop into only one type of cell
differentiation Process by which committed cells acquire the structures and functions of highly specialized cells
tissue Group of cells that work together to perform a similar function.
Homeostasis Regulation and maintenance of constant internal conditions
organ Group of different types of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions
organ system Two or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions
organism an individual living things
species group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring.
Positive feedback control system in which sensory information causes the body to increase the rate of change away from homoestasis
negative feedback Control system for homeostasis that adjusts the body's conditions when the conditions vary from ideal
Nervous system Body system that controls sensation, interpretation, and response; includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves
endocrine system Body system that controls growth, development, and responses to the environment by releasing chemical system into the blood stream
gland Organ that makes and releases chemicals that affect the activities of other organs
hormone chemical signal that is produced in one part of an organism and affects cell activity in another part
Pituitary area in the middle of the brain that makes and releases hormones that control cell growth and osmoregulation or water levels in the blood
thyroid Gland,which wraps around the windpipe on three sides. It produces hormones that control metabolism, growth, and development.
CNS Central nervous system, part of the nervous system that interprets messagesfromothe nerves in the body; includes the brain and spinal cord.
PNS Peripheral nervous system, part of the nervous system that transmits impulses between the central nervous system and other organs in the body
Stimulus Something that causes a physiological response
Neuron Call of the nervous system that sends impulses between the body systems and interprets and stores some messages in the brain
neurotransmitter chemical that sends a nervous systems 's signal across a synapse
Synapse Tiny gap between neurons through which chemical signals are sent.
Circulatory system Body system that transports nutrients and wastes between various body tissues, includes heart, blood, and blod vessels.
Respiratory system body system that brings oxygen into the body and removes carbon dioxide ; includes nose, trachea and lungs.
alveoli Tiny, thin-walled structures where gas exchange occurs in the lungs.
trachea Long structure made of soft tissue that connects the mouth and nose to the lungs in humans
Diaphragm thin muscle below the rib cage that controls the flow of air into and out of the lungs.
Vein large blood vessel that carries blood from the rest of the body to the heart.
artery large blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart.
capillary Tiny blood vessels that moves blood between larger blood vessels and other tissues in the body.
Pathogen agent that causes diseases
immune system body system that fights off infections
antibody Protein produced by B cells that helps destroy pathogens
antigen protein on the surface of cells, that the immune system uses to identify foreign substances
vaccine Substance that stimulated the immune system response; producing acquired immunity without illness or infection.
inflammation Immune response that is characterized by swelling, redness, pain, and itching.
Allergen antigen that does not cause disease but still produces an immune response.
digestion process by which large, complex molecules are broken down into smaller molecules that can be used by cells.
digestive system body system that digests food;includes mouth, esophagus, stomach, pancreas, intestines, liver, gallbladder, rectum and anus.
enzyme protein that catalyzes chemical reactions for organisms.
Absorption process by which nutrients move out of one system into another; e.g. Nutrients moving from the digestive system into the circulatory system.
Created by: Dr. Lamont