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Earth's Structure

Science Vocab

TermDefinition
Alfred Wegner theorized that continental drift was caused by movement of tectonic plates
Compression Stress a set of stresses directed toward the center of a rock mass
Continental Drift the gradual movement of the continents across earth's surface through geological time
Convergent Boundaries plate boundaries that move toward each other
Divergent Boundaries plate boundaries that move away from each other
Earthquakes a sudden and violent shaking of the ground, sometimes causing great destruction, as a result of movements within the Earth's crust or volcanic action
Fault a break in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of Earth's movement
Hot Spot a location on the Earth's surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time
Island Arc a curved chain of volcanic islands located at a tectonic plate margin
Normal Faulting where two blocks of rock are pulled apart, caused by tension resulting in the hanging wall moving downward relative to the footwall
Pangea a supercontinent believed to have existed during the late Paleozoic and early Mesozoic eras
Ring of Fire where a large number of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur in the basin of the Pacific Ocean
Shearing Stress when the stress component on a rock is parallel to a given surface, such as a fault plane
Stress force placed on a rock to change its shape or volume
Tension Stress the stress that tends to pull something apart, such as a fault in rock
Transform Boundaries also known as conservative plate boundary since these faults neither create nor destroy lithosphere, a type of fault whose relative motion is predominantly horizontal
Volcanoes a mountain or hill, typically conical, having a crater or vent through which lava, rock fragments, hot vapor, and gas are being or have been erupted from the Earth's crust
Created by: joshhutchrocks
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