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muscles

mrs. eastham anat./phys.

questionAnswer
contractility ability of skeletal muscles to shorten with force
contractility ability of skeletal muscles to shorten with force
excitability capacity of skeletal muscles to respond to a stimulus
excitability capacity of skeletal muscles to respond to a stimulus
extensibility ability to be stretched
extensibility ability to be stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
elasticity ability to recoil to their original resting length after they have been stretched
epimysium skeletal muscle surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
epimysium skeletal muscle surrounded by a connective tissue sheath
fascia another connective tissue located outside the epimysium
a muscle is composed of numerous visible bundles called fasciculi
fasciculi are surrounded by loose connective tissue called perimysium
muscle fibers muscle cells
muscle fibers muscle cells
each muscle fiber is a single cylindrical cell connecting several nuclei
endomysium a connective tissue sheath that surrounds fibers
myofibrils a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other.
myofibrils a threadlike structure that extends from one end of the fiber to the other.
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments
actin myofilaments thin myofilaments
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments
myosin myofilaments thick myofilaments
actin myofilaments resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together
actin myofilaments resemble 2 minute strands of pearls twisted together
myosin myofilaments resemble bundles of minute golf clubs
myosin myofilaments resemble bundles of minute golf clubs
sarcomeres ordered units joined end to end to form the myofibril
basic structural and functional unit of the muscle sarcomere
each sarcomere extends from what to what z line to z line
each sarcomere extends from what to what z line to z line
on each side of the z line is a light area called a ____, that consists to actin I band
on each side of the z line is a light area called a ____, that consists to actin I band
in the center of each sarcomere is another light are called the ____, which consists of only myosin H zone
what is the A band darker central region of each sarcomere
dark staining band in the center of the sarcomere M line
in the center of each sarcomere is another light are called the ____, which consists of only myosin H zone
the outside of most cell membranes are positively charged
dark staining band in the center of the sarcomere M line
the inside of most cell membranes are negatively charged
resting membrane potential charge difference across the membrane
action potential brief reversal back of a charge
the outside of most cell membranes are positively charged
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
axons enter the muscles and branch. each branch that connects to the muscle forms a _______, or ____ near the center of the cell. neuromuscular junction; synapse
the inside of most cell membranes are negatively charged
motor unit a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
action potential brief reversal back of a charge
motor neurons nerve cells that carry action potentials to skeletal muscle fibers
axons enter the muscles and branch. each branch that connects to the muscle forms a _______, or ____ near the center of the cell. neuromuscular junction; synapse
motor unit a single motor neuron and all the skeletal muscle fibers it innervates
presynaptic terminal enlarged nerve terminal
synaptic cleft the space between the presynaptic terminal and the muscle cell
postsynaptic terminal muscle fiber
each presynaptic terminal contains synaptic vesicles
synaptic vesicles secrete a neurotransmitter called acetycholine
muscle contraction occurs as actin and myosin myofilaments slide past one another causing the sarcomeres to shorten
sliding filament mechanism the sliding of actin myofilaments past myosin myofilaments during contraction
between the H, the I ,and the A band, which one does not shorten in length? the A band
muscle twitch a contraction of an entire muscle in response to a stimulus
a muscle fiber will not respond to stimulus until the stimulus reaches a level called threshold
all-or-more response the phenomenon of the threshold
lag phase the time between application of a stimulus to a motor neuron and the beginning of a contraction
contraction phase the time of contraction
relaxation phase the time during which the muscle relaxes
tetany where the muscle remains contracted without relaxing
recuitment the increase in number of motor units being activated
ATP needed for energy for muscle contraction
ATP produces mitochondria
adenosine triphosphate ATP
adenosine diphosphate ADP
creatine phosphate high-energy molecule
anaerobic respiration without oxygen
aerobic respiration with oxygen
oxygen debt amount of oxygen needed in chemical reactions to convert lactic acid to glucose and to replenish the depleted stores of creatine phosphate stores in muscle cells.
muscle fatigue when ATP is used during muscle contraction faster than it can be produced in the muscle cells
isometric equal distance
isotonic equal tension
muscle tone constant tension produced by muscles of the body for long periods of time
fast-twitch fibers contract quickly and fatigue quickly
slow-twitch fibers contract more slowly and are more resistant to fatigue
origin head
insertion the end of the muscle undergoing the greatest movement
synergists muscles that work together to accomplish specific movements
antagonists muscles that work in opposition to one another
prime mover one muscle that plays the major role in accomplishing the desired movement
2 tongue muscles extrinsic and intrinsic
sternocleidomastoid prime neck muscle
mastication chewing
kissing muscles orbicularis oris and buccinator
occipito frontalis raises eyebrows
orbicularis occilu closes eyelid
zygomaticus smiling
levator labii superioris sneering
depressor angulioris frowning
Created by: baby_hazee