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Clinical Research

Clinical Research Quiz 2 pt 1

TermDefinition
Accidental sampling form of convenience sampling
Cluster sampling successive random sampling of (broad groups) [instead of individuals] units, e.g. states, cities, census tracts, households; can be selected by simple or stratified methods; type of PROBABILITY SAMPLING
Confirming cases
Convenience sampling uses the most conveniently available people as study participants; type of NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING; WEAKEST FORM OF SAMPLING
Criterion sampling purposive sampling approach used by qualitative researchers involving selecting cases that meet a predetermined criterion of importance
Critical case sampling sampling approach used by qualitative researchers involving the purposeful selection of cases that are especially important or illustrative
Data saturation sampling to point at which no new info is obtained & redundancy is achieved
Disconfirming cases concept used in QUALITATIVE RESEARCH concerning a case that challenges the researchers' conceptualizations; sometimes used in a sampling strategy
Disproportionate sampling design when comparisons are sought btw strata of greatly unequal size, additional subjects may be selected from small strata so that analysis procedures can be conducted; type of stratified random sampling (weighting is then done)
Effect size statistical expression of magnitude of the relationship btw 2 variables, or t/ magnitude of the difference btw groups; it expresses t/ strength of relationships among research variables
Element the most basic unit about which info is collected (e.g. humans in nsg research)
Eligibility/Inclusion criteria criteria the specifies population characteristics
Exclusion criteria characteristics that subjects must NOT possess
Extreme (deviant) case sampling sampling approach used by QUALITATIVE RESEARCH involving purposeful selection of the most extreme or unusual cases
Homogeneous sampling if population is relatively homogenous, a small sample may be adequate
Intensity sampling sampling approach used by QUALITATIVE RESEARCHERS involving the purposeful selection of intense (but not extreme) cases
Key informant person knowledgeable about the phenomenon of research interest and who is willing to share information and insights with the researcher (often an ethnographer)
Margin of error
Maximum variation sampling QUALITATIVE RESERACHERS involving purposeful selection of cases with a wide range of variation
Multistage sampling sampling strategy that proceeds through a set of stages form larger to smaller sampling units, (i.e. from states, to census tracts, to households); probability and nonprobability may be used ex: you may select states, but randomize census, etc.)
Nominated sampling sampling method in which researchers ask early informants to make referrals to other potential participants
Nonprobability sampling sampling where elements are selected by nonrandom methods; there’s no way to estimate the probability that each element has of being included; rarely represent population
Nonresponse bias difference btw participants & those who declined to participate (in longitudinal study, attrition bias should be reported)
Population entire aggregation of cases in which a researcher is interested
Power analysis statistical procedure for estimating either the likelihood of committing a Type II error or sample size requirements; in QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH; the larger the sample, the more representative of the population
Probability sampling sampling involving random selection of elements; the only viable method of obtaining representative samples
Proportionate sampling design subjects selected in proportion to the size of the stratum in the population; in stratified random sampling; type of PROBABILITY SAMPLING
Purposive (purposeful) sampling/Judgmental sampling based on the belief that researchers’ knowledge about the population can be used to hand-pick sample members; type of NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
Quota sampling one in which the researcher identifies population strata & determines how many participants are needed form each stratum; type of NONPROBABILITY SAMPLING
Random sampling involves a selection process in which each element in the population has an equal, independent chance of being selected; with PROBABILITY SAMPLING
Representative sample one whose key characteristic closely approximate those of the population
Response rate rate of participation in a study, calculated by dividing the number of people participating by the number of people sampled
Sample size the larger the sample, the more representative of the population; QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Sampling in QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH the process of selecting a portion of the population to represent the entire population
Sampling in QUALITATIVE RESEARCH concerned w/ measuring attributes & relationships in a population & representative sample is needed; initial and later considerations
Sampling bias systematic over-representation or under-representation of some segment of the population in terms of a characteristic relevant to the research question
Sampling design classified as either probability of nonprobability
Sampling error differences btw population values and sample values
Sampling frame in a simple random sampling, t/ technical name for the list of elements from which the sample will be chosen (i.e. table of random numbers; computer program)
Sampling interval the standard distance btw elements chosen for the sample
Sampling plan specifies in advance how participants are to be selected & how many to include; in QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH
Screening instrument brief interview or form to determine whether a prospective subject meets all eligibility criteria for the study; need to gain cooperation of those who are eligible
Simple random sampling a type of sample selection using a sampling frame, giving each element an equal & independent chance of being selected
Snowball sampling/Network sampling/Chain sampling early sample members are asked to identify & refer other people who meet the eligibility criteria; a type of CONVENIENCE SAMPLING; weakest form of sampling
Strata mutually exclusive segments of a population established by one or more characteristics (i.e. all RNs in the US, or 3 strata <30yo, 30-45, and >45
Stratified random sampling the population is 1st divided into 2 or more strata & then the appropriate nmber of elements are selected randomly from each stratum; type of PROBABILITY SAMPLING
Subgroup effect the differential effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable for various subsets of the sample
Systematic sampling involves selection of every _th case from a list or group; yield essentially same results as simple random sampling by involves far less work
Theoretical sampling informants who can best contribute to the evolving theory; type of QUALITATY TRADITION
Theory-based sampling
Typical case sampling
Volunteer sampling
Weighting process of making adjustments to arrive at the best estimates of the overall population values; type of stratified random sampling
Steps in sampling in quantitative studies -identify population
-specify eligibility criteria
-specify sampling plan
-recruit sample
additional term: Type I error rejecting null hypothesis when it's true
additional term: Type II error accepting null hypothesis when it's false
Audio computer-assisted self-interview (audio-CASI) an approach to collecting self-report data in which respondents listen to questions being read over headphones, and respond by entering info directly onto a computer
Back translation the translation of a translated text back into the original language, so that original and back-translated versions can be compared as means of enhancing semantic equivalence
Biophysiologic measures info used for creating independent variables, and for measuring outcomes
-in vivo measurements: done directly in or on living organism (i.e. measuring oxygen sats, BP, temp)
-in vitro measurements: done outside organism's body (measuring serum potassium concentration)
Computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI) in-person interviewing in which the interviewer reads questions from, and enters responses onto, a laptop computer
Computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI) interviewing done over phone in which interviewer reads questions from, and enters responses onto, a computer
Data collection plan a plan or description for the gathering of info to address a research problem
Data collection protocols the formal procedures researchers develop to guide the collection of data in a standardized fashion
“Going native” a pitfall in ethnographic research wherein a researcher becomes emotionally involved w/ participants & therefore loses the ability to observe objectively
Instrument device used to collect data (i.e. questionnaire, test, observation schedule)
Manipulation check in EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES, a test to assess whether the manipulation was implemented or experienced as intended
Norms the "normal" value on the measure for a specified population, and thus offer a built-in comparison
Objectivity extent to which independent researchers would arrive at similar judgments or conclusions (i.e. judgments not biased by personal values or beliefs)
Observation
Observer biases
Obtrusiveness
Pretest t/ trial administration of a newly developed instrument to identify problems or assess time requirements; done in data collection
Qualitizing data quantitative data that has undergone process of being interpreted in a qualitative manner
Quantifiability
Quantitizing data qualitative data that has undergone process of being coded and analyzed quantitatively
Records
Reflexivity in qualitative studies, critical self-reflection about one's own biases, preferences, and preconceptions
Self-report method of collecting data that involves a direct verbal report of information by the person who is being studied (i.e. by interview or questionnaire)
Structure
Training manual a manual that normally includes background materials (i.e. the study aims), general instructions, specific instructions, and copies of all data forms
*additional term: Likert scale consists of several declarative items that express a viewpoint on a topic (i.e. state degree of agreement or disagreement of opinion; rank your pain)
Created by: Fukanwa