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ES 08.2 Earthquakes

Terms associated with earthquakes.

QuestionAnswer
any of the forces that act on rock along a plate boundary causing deformation stress
stress that squeezes rock along a fault compression
stress that tries to pull rock apart along a fault tension
stress that tries to twist rock along a fault shear
in general, any deformation that occurs in rock in response to stress along a fault strain
describes strain (deformation) in rock which disappears if stress acting on the rock is reduced elastic deformation
describes strain (deformation) in rock which permanently distorts it when stress exceeds the elastic limit plastic deformation
describes what happens to rock when the stress acting on it exceeds rock strength failure (breakage)
any fracture in earth's crust along which movement may occur fault
describes a fault that results in one side dropping lower as tension (pulling) forces act on the fault normal fault
describes a fault that results in one side moving upward as compression (squeezing) forces act on the fault reverse fault
describes a fault along which shear (twisting) forces cause horizontal movement slip-strike fault
synonym for 'earthquake waves' seismic waves
fastest seismic waves that cause earth to vibrate parallel to the direction of the wave Primary (P) waves
seismic waves that cause earth to vibrate perpendicular to the direction of the wave and only travel through solids Secondary (S) waves
seismic waves that cause most of the damage during earthquakes, moving along the top of the ground and causing particles to move in circles surface waves
exact origin of an earthquake, often well below the surface focus
area on surface of earth directly above location of earthquake origin epicenter
instrument that detects seismic waves seismometer (seismograph)
paper or data record of waves produced by earthquake seismogram
graph showing arrival time for S and P waves for distances travel-time curve
number of seismometer stations whose seismograms are required to find location of an epicenter three (3)
process of locating an epicenter using the data from three seismometer stations triangulation
S waves do not move through this layer of earth, indicating that it must be liquid outer core
this scale numerically rates the energy of seismic waves (based on size of the largest) Richter scale
height of a wave (earthquake or otherwise) amplitude
energy of seismic waves as rated by the Richter scale magnitude
how much greater is the amplitude of largest seismic waves for a magnitude increase of 1 10x
how much greater is the energy of largest seismic waves for a magnitude increase of 1 32x
this scale rates the total amount of energy released by an earthquake and is most often cited by news reporters when describing an earthquake size moment magnitude scale
this scale measures the damage caused by an earthquake on a scale of I to XII Mercalli scale
structural failure during an earthquake that occurs when floors of a tall building collapse on top of each other "pancaking"
failure of ground during an earthquake where water-saturated soil acts like a liquid, often causing buildings to sink and/or buried objects to float up soil liquefaction
fast-moving wave formed when seafloor rises and lifts a column of water during a quake, often causing the most damage/loss of life tsunami
Created by: goakley