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BEHP 2011 - Unit 2

Unit 2

Goals of Science 1. Prediction and Control 2. Development of technology to benefit humanity
Determinism All behavior is lawful
Empiricism Objective observation with thorough description and quantification of behavior
Two elements of empiricism 1. Experimentation 2. Replication
Parsimony Simple explanations should be ruled out before complex ones
Philosophical Doubt Continually question the truthfulness of what is regarded as fact; be skeptical
Pragmatism Assesses the truth of theories or beliefs in terms of the success of their practical application
Pragmatic Truth Criterion 1. evaluates science in terms of its products that benefit humanity 2. goal is to predict and control behavior 3. behavior analysis has produced a powerful technology for behavior change that has made a difference in thousands of people's lives
Philosophical Assumptions 1.Determinism 2.Empiricism 3.Parsimony 4.Philosophical Doubt 5.Pragmatism
Selection Process in which repeated cycles occur of: 1. variation 2. interaction with e'ment 3. differential replication as a function of interaction
Skinner and selectionism 1. natural selection 2. operant selection 3. cultural selection
natural selection survival of the fittest
Operant selection selected responses are repeated and reproduced
cultural selection special kind of operant selection; mediated by verbal behavior involving cultural practices
Selectionism Behavior is the joint product of: 1. contingencies of survival responsible for natural selection on the species 2. contingencies of reinforcement responsible for the repertoires acquired by individual organism
Temporal contiguity nearness of events in time ** very important factor in learning
Types of temporal contiguity S1-S2 (Pairing) R-S
Contingency Likelihood that one event is a result of another event If X (AND ONLY X) then Y
Contiguity Adjacency between events regardless of causality
Types of Contingencies 1. S-S (Pairing) 2. R-S 3. S-R-S (3-term contingency)
Basic operations of behavior analysis 1. direct observation of behavior and e'ment events 2. repeated measures of behavior 3. Graph data 4. manipulation 5. systematic evaluation 6. analysis and interpretation
Direct observation The "Show me" methods: using senses to observe behavior in context
Direct observation - measurement one of the following: 1. number 2. Time-based aspects of the behavior (latency, duration, and/or IRT) 3. time-sampling
Repeated Measures Data collected multiple times before intervention, and after each manipulation, and during any other phase of the study
Types of manipulations 1. present an antecedent stimulus 2. withdraw an antecedent stimulus 3. pair 2 or more stimuli 4. provide a consequence (onset/offset) 5. signal a consequence 6. establish/abolish effectiveness of consequence
Systematic evaluation Control for extraneous confounding variables in single-case designs
analysis and interpretations Look for functional relations between behavior and e'mental events
Presentation of stimulus 1. salt on tongue -> salivation 2. sudden loud noise -> startle response 3. rain begins -> turn on windshield wipers
Withdrawal of a stimulus 1. light turns off -> pupils dilate 2. rain stops -> turn off wipers
Pairing Contingently pairing 2 or more stimuli concurrently may be same time, or 1 can precede the other
consequential operations (+) 1. press lever -> food pellet comes out 2. ask for water -> get water 3. tough hot stove -> get burned
consequential operations (-) 1. flip switch -> light turns off 2. walk indoors -> rain stops hitting you 3. kick teacher -> get out of class 4. hit brother -> video games turned off
Signaling a consequence s1-r1 - consequence s2-r1 - no consequence dad - ask for video game - gets video game mom - ask for video game - doesn't get video game
establishing operations 1. salt on tongue increases the effectiveness of getting water as a consequence 2. decreasing the temperature to 50 degrees Fahrenheit makes getting a blanket more effective consequence 3. a locked door makes finding a key a more effective consequence
abolishing operations 1. drinking 32oz of water decreases effectiveness of getting water as a consequence 2. raising the temperature to 80 degrees Farenheit makes getting a blanket a less effective consequence
learning relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience
magnification of a stimulus rain gets harder -> turn up wipers
attenuation of a stimulus rain lessens -> turn down wipers
Created by: sanya