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CE 10-17 Earthquakes

WORDDEFINITION
Earthquake Vibrations in the earth caused by the sudden release of energy, usually a result of the movement of rocks along a fault.
Crust The earth's outer layer; the coolest and least dense layer of the earth
Fault A fracture in bedrock, along which blocks of rock on opposite sides of the fracture move.
Mantle The layer of earth that is beneath the crust.
Lithosphere The cool, solid outer shell of the earth.
(lithospheric) plate Masses of land that are floating on the earths mantle.
Seismologist A scientist who studies earthquake activity
S-wave The seismic wave vibrate side to side an up and down
P-wave The seismic wave that compresses and expand the ground
Focus The point beneath the earths surface at which rock under stress breaks and triggers an earthquake.
surface wave The slowest seismic waves that produce the most severe ground movements
Epicenter The point on the surface directly above the focus.
Seismic Waves Carry the energy of an earthquake away from the focus through the earths interior, and across the surface.
Tsunami The water displaced by an earthquake
liquefaction When an earthquakes violent shaking suddenly turns loose, soft soil into liquid mud.
aftershock An earthquake that occurs after a large earthquake in the same area.
Base isoloters These rods separate or isolate a building from its foundation and prevent some of the earthquakes energy from entering the building
Shear core walls Transfers some of a quakes energy from the roof and floors to the foundation
cross bracing Steel cross braces are placed between stories to stiffin a buildings frame and absorb energy during a quake
mass damper/damper Work like shock absorbers in a car to absorb some of the energy of seismic waves.
flexible pipe Water and gas pipes that have flexible joints that bend as energy passes through them greatly reducing damage.
tension ties Firmly tie the floors and walls to the buildings frame.
magnitude Is a measure of the size of an earthquake based on the amount of energy released by the earthquake based Richter Scale
Stress A force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.
Tension Causes the crust to become thinner by stretching the crust.
Compression Squeezes the rock until it folds or breaks
Strike-slip fault Rocks on either side of a strike slip fault slip past each other.
Normal Fault In this fault the hanging wall slips down relative to the footwall
reverse fault In this fault the hanging wall moves up relative tot the footwall
Anti cline A fold of rock that bends upward into an arch.
Sycline A fold of rock that bends downward to form a valley.
Plateau A large area of flat land raised high above sea level.
Hanging Walls The block of rock that lies above the fault.
Foot wall The rock that lies below the fault.
Shearing Stress that pushes a mass of rock in two opposite directions.
Mercalli Scale Is used to measure the intensity of an earthquake.
inner core Is solid and seems to be made out of iron ant nickel. Is 1280 km or 800 miles thick.
outer core Is liquid and most likely made out of iron. About 2,000 km or 1,400 miles thick.
Richter Scale Measures the magnitude of an earthquake.
basalt The rock that covers most of the earths ocean floor
granite The rock that is in most of the earths crust.
aesthenosphere The part of the mantle below the rigid part is hot and is similar to taffy
continental crust The crust in land.
oceanic crust The crust under the ocean
Divergent boundry Where two tectonic plates divide. (diverge/divide)
convergent boundry Where two tectonic plates move together and collide(converge)
transform boundry Where two tectonic plates slide past each other.(strike slip fault)
subduction zone The place where denser oceanic crust slips under the less dense continental crust.
Created by: 1963054924