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Igneous Rocks

Magma Hot fluid or semifluid material below or within the earth's crust from which lava and other igneous rock is formed by cooling.
Bowen's Reaction Series The work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who was able to explain why certain types of minerals tend to be found together while others are almost never associated with one another.
Extrusive Relating to or denoting rock that has been extruded at the earth's surface as lava or other volcanic deposits.
Intrusive Of, relating to, or formed by intrusion.
Phenocryst A large or conspicuous crystal in a porphyritic rock, distinct from the groundmass.
Aphantic Texture A texture of igneous rocks in which the crystals are too small for individual minerals to be distinguished with the unaided eye.
Phaneritic Texture The crystals are roughly equal in size and large enough so that individual minerals can be identified with the unaided eye.
Glassy Texture The texture of certain igneous rocks, such as obsidian, that contain no crystals.
Pyroclastic Texture Texture resulting from the consolidation of individual rock fragments that are
Pegmatitic Texture This texture is found in intrusive rocks. The extra large size does not mean that they cooled extra slowly. Instead, the large crystals of a pegmatite formed in a magma that was extra rich in dissolved water.
Mafic Relating to, denoting, or containing a group of dark-colored, mainly ferromagnesian minerals such as pyroxene and olivine.
Ultramafic Relating to or denoting igneous rocks composed chiefly of mafic minerals.
Intermediate An igneous rock that has an intermediate silica content. Examples are syenite and diorite. Also see entries for acidic, basic and ultrabasic rocks
Felsic A term used to describe an igneous rock that has a large percentage of light-colored minerals such as quartz, feldspar, and muscovite.
Volatiles Found in varying amounts in nearly all wall rocks and magmas figure prominently in the magmatic differentiation process of assimiliation.
Granite A coarse-grained, intrusive igneous rock composed primarily of light colored minerals such as quartz, orthoclase, sodium plagioclase and muscovite mica.
Basalt A dark-colored fine-grained extrusive igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase feldspar and pyroxene.
Andesite A fine-grained, extrusive igneous rock composed mainly of plagioclase with other minerals such as hornblende, pyroxene and biotite.
Created by: probinson28