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mitosis and meiosis

notes vocabulary

What are two scenarios where mitosis is common? replacing dead cells and growth/development periods
How many chromosomes are found in a diploid human cell during G2 phase? 46 typically: 23 pairs
What is the symbol for diploid 2n
What holds together sister chromatids? centromere/ kinetochore
What are the identical strands of DNA that are held together to form bivalent chromosomes? sister chromatids
What are the three subphases of interphase? G1, S, G2
Which subphase of interphase doubles (replicates) the DNA? S (synthesis)
What is the unwound form of the DNA/protein combination? chromatin
What is the wound up form of the DNA/protein combination? chromosome
When are chromosomes present in the cell cycle? Only during mitosis/meiosis.
What are the microtubules that shorten to move chromosomes to opposite sides of the cell during mitosis? spindle fibers
When a centromere is pulled apart during the separation of a bivalent chromosome, what is the resulting chromosome called? daughter chromosomes
What is the place where protein belts accomplish cytokinesis in animal cells? cleavage furrow: protein belt
What is the place where the golgi bodies line up and make a new cell wall during cytokinesis for plant cells? cell plate: golgi line up and secrete new cell wall
How many chromosomes are there in a nucleus of a human skin cell that has just completed mitosis and cytokinesis? 46 (daughter/single copy type) chromosomes
How many chromosomes in a cell that has just completed mitosis but has not done cytokinesis yet? 92: 46 per nuclei as the 46 bivalent chromosomes were pulled apart
What is the biggest advantage of sexual reproduction? increases variation
Where does meiosis occur in humans? gonads
Where does meiosis occur in females? female gonads: ovaries
Where does meiosis occur in males? male gonads: testes
How many rounds of nuclear division occur in meiosis? 2
When the two homologous bivalent chromosomes line up during meiosis I what is the combination called? tetrad (FOUR)
When the tetrad forms, what process occurs where pieces of homologous chromosomes are traded? crossing over
What is the purpose of crossing over? increase variation
What phase of meiosis is when crossing over occurs? prophase I
What are the two chromosomes called that are of the same type with one coming from each parent? homologous chromosomes: same genes, but different alleles for those genes
Why does replication have to happen before mitosis? So each cell /nucleus has its own exact copy of chromosome
How many autosomes are in a sperm? 22: 1 sex chromosome
What are the sex chromosomes of a female? XX
How many autosomes in a skin cell of a human? 44
What is the female gamete? egg (ovum)
What is the male gamete? sperm
What is oogenesis? process of making an ovum or egg in the ovaries
What are the four ways to increase variation? 1. mutations 2. sexual reproduction: two sources 3. random fertilization: sperm egg choice 4. crossing over: mixes chromosomes more
On average, how many of your chromosomes are identical to your great grandmother assuming you are a girl and there was no crossing over? 5.75 (6) 23 of mom 11.5 of each of her parents, and 5.75 of each of her grandparents 6?
What is the lump of undifferentiated cells? tumor
What kind of tumors are spreading? malignant
What kind of tumors are not spreading? benign
What is the process of cancer spreading called? metastasis
What are cells that are in the G0 phase? muscles, neurons, organs that are fully formed (no growth/devopment) although some cells are replacing damaged cells in some organs.
What are the three stages of the cell cycle? interphase, mitosis, cytokinesis
Which two stages of the cell cycle are involved with cell division? mitosis, cytokinesis
On average, how many of your great grandmothers chromosomes would be in her granddaughter 1/4 (1/2 to son/daughter who passes on half to granddaughter) Your mom
What is MPF made of? CDK and cyclin
What builds up in a cell to get pass the checkpoint and begin mitosis? cyclins
What do cyclins bind to? CDK
What is K in CDK? kinase
What is C in CDK? Cyclin
What is the gene that when mutated can lead to more cell division than normal? ras
What is the "guardian angel" of the cell? p53
What are two reasons older people get cancer more often than younger people? immune system not as strong, more time to build up needed mutations
Why is targeted therapy better than general chemotherapy? General chemotherapy and radiation therapy kill many healthy cells all over the body whereas targeted therapies go after cancer only.
What type of gene is p53? tumor supressor
Other than fixing the DNA how can p53 stop the ras gene mutation from causing cancer? apoptosis of the problematic cell
what is programmed cell death? apoptosis
If the p value is larger than 0.5 do you reject or accept the null? accept
If the X2 gets larger, what happens to the p value? smaller
if the difference between observed and expected gets larger, what happens to the X2 value? larger
if the difference between observed and expected gets larger, what happens to the p value? smaller
Created by: whames4
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