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Cellular Energetics

Basic, Beyond Basic and Lab Terms

enzyme (function) proteins that increase the rate of a reaction by lowering the energy of activation [B]
enzyme (structure) in order to react, the substrate (reactant) must fit into the active site of the enzyme [B]
ATP adenosine tri-phosphate is the universal energy molecule which releases energy when a phosphate is lost converting the molecule to ADP [B]
autotrophs and heterotrophs 1) organisms that produce their own food (usually plants from the sun's energy) 2) organisms that consume their food [B]
photosynthesis (location) chloroplast (usually in plant cells) [B]
photosynthesis (purpose) the process that converts sun's energy into sugar [B]
photosynthesis (equation) light + CO2 + H2O ---> O2 + C6H12O6 (light + carbon dioxide + water yields oxygen + glucose [B]
photosynthesis (steps) 1) light dependent reactions 2) calvin cycle [B]
cellular respiration (location) mitochondria and cytosol [B]
cellular respiration (purpose) the process that releases ATP energy from sugar (glucose) [B]
cellular respiration (equation) O2 + C6H12O6 ---> ATP + CO2 + H2O (or oxygen + glucose yields ATP + carbon dioxide + water) [B]
cellular respiration (steps) 1) glycolysis 2) Krebs cycle (or citric acid cycle) 3) electron transport chain/chemiosmosis [B]
cofactors and coenzymes inorganic and organic helpers that fit into the active site of an enzyme and assist in enzyme function [BB]
substrate the substance on which an enzyme works [BB]
active and allosteric site 1) portion of an enzyme that attaches to the substrate 2) portion of the enzyme other than the active site where molecules bind, causing a change in the shape of the active site, making it either more or less receptive to the substrate [BB]
competitive inhibitor A substance that reduces the activity of an enzyme by entering the active site in place of the substrate whose structure it mimics [BB]
entropy A quantitative measure of disorder or randomness [BB]
fermentation A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without oxygen or an electron transport chain (mitochondria) and that produces a characteristic end-product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid. [BB]
glycolysis The splitting of glucose into pyruvate. It is the one metabolic pathway that occurs in all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or cellular (aerobic) respiration. [BB]
Krebs cycle A chemical cycle that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion; the second major stage in cellular respiration (aka citric acid cycle) [BB]
Electron Transport Chain + Chemiosmosis 1) A sequence of electron-carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions. 2) The production of ATP using the energy of hydrogen-ion gradients and ATP Synthase (last stage of cellular respiration) [BB]
Light Dependent Reactions The first stage photosynthesis that occur on the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplast and converts solar energy to the chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, releasing oxygen in the process. [BB]
Calvin Cycle The second of two major stages in photosynthesis, involving atmospheric CO2 fixation and reduction of the fixed carbon into carbohydrate (aka light independent reactions) [BB]
electron acceptors Substance that accepts or receives electrons in an oxidation-reduction reaction, becoming reduced in the process. (oxygen is the final electron acceptor in cellular respiration) [BB]
catalase Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as vegetables, fruit or animals). It catalyzes the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. [Lab: Enzyme Activity]
hydrogen peroxide decomposition produces water and oxygen (more rapidly in the presence of an enzyme) [Lab: Enzyme Activity]
denatured the change in shape of an enzyme, thereby becoming biologically inactive which occurs under extreme conditions of pH, salt concentration, or temperature. [Lab: Enzyme Activity]
rate of enzyme activity (substrate concentration) increase in concentration of substrate will increase the rate of enzyme activity up until the point where the enzymes become saturated with substrate [Lab: Enzyme Activity]
rate of enzyme activity (enzyme concentration) increase in concentration of the enzyme will increase the rate of enzyme activity as long as the substrate is present in an excess amount [Lab: Enzyme Activity]
rate of enzyme activity (pH) each enzyme type has an optimum pH level with the highest rate of enzyme activity (too low or too high decreases the rate or even leads to denaturation) [Lab: Enzyme Activity]
rate of enzyme activity (temperature) each enzyme type has an optimum temperature with the highest rate of enzyme activity (too low or too high decreases the rate or even leads to denaturation) [Lab: Enzyme Activity]
enzyme substrate complex formed when a substrate fits into the induced fit at the active site of an enzyme (causing the substrate to form into a product) [Lab: Enzyme Activity]
leaf disks circle of spinach leaf cut with a hole puncher [Lab: Photosynthesis]
ET50 the time it takes for 50% of the total number leaf disks to float to the top [Lab: Photosynthesis]
air space space in the spongy mesophyll of a leaf that is filled by the oxygen produced during photosynthesis -- causes the leaf to float [Lab: Photosynthesis]
rate of photosynthesis (% sodium bicarbonate in solution) serves as a carbon source for photosynthesis and more increases the rate of photosynthesis [Lab: Photosynthesis]
rate of photosynthesis (light intensity) absorbed by chlorophyll during photosynthesis and more increases the rate of photosynthesis [Lab: Photosynthesis]
rate of photosynthesis (color of light) red, blue and violet increase the rate of photosynthesis (green is reflected and does not increase the rate of photosynthesis) [Lab: Photosynthesis]
rate of photosynthesis (temperature) more heat increases kinetic energy and the rate of photosynthesis (up to a point) [Lab: Photosynthesis]
KOH reacts with carbon dioxide (to produce potassium carbonate) produced during cellular respiration, so that only a decrease of oxygen gas is observed [Lab: Cell Resp]
respirometer a device used to measure the rate of cellular respiration of a living organism by measuring its rate of exchange of oxygen [Lab: Cell Resp]
glass beads used to give equal volume in the respirometers and to account for changes in pressure [Lab: Cell Resp]
dry peas non-germinating peas that act as a control when comparing the rate of cellular respiration [Lab: Cell Resp]
germinating peas sprouting peas that are at a high rate of cellular respiration [Lab: Cell Resp]
rate of cellular respiration (temperature) higher rate in the respirometer in the room temperature bath (as opposed to the ice bath) [Lab: Cell Resp]
absorbent and non-absorbent cotton 1) holds the KOH 2) blocks the KOH from reaching the peas [Lab: Cell Resp]
Created by: cfigueiredo
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