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nervous system

nervous system patho

the central nervous system is encased by bone (the skull and vertebral column), a variety of membranes (dura mater, pia mater, and arachnoid membrane), and cerebrospinal fluid.
The thick outer membrane is adherent to the bone of the cranium and follows the major fissures of the brain to secure it in place. (dura mater)
The thinner inner membranes (pia and arachnoid) are referred to as the ______________and follow the contours of the brain. leptomeninges
Beneath the arachnoid membrane is the subarachnoid space in which the ____________ flows. cerebrospinal fluid
These are the functional units of the nervous system and populate both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). NEURONS
They consist of a cell body, afferent dendritic processes, and the efferent axon which in most instances is surrounded by a myelin sheath. neurons
These are glial cells which act as stromal (supportive) cells of the nervous system and react to CNS injury much like fibroblasts do in other tissues. ASTROCYTES -
These are glial cells which function as CNS macrophages. MICROGLIA
These are specialized ciliated glial cells which line the ventricular cavities and central canal of the spinal cord. EPENDYMA
These are glial cells which form myelin sheaths around nerve fibers of the central nervous system early in fetal life. OLIGODENDROGLIA
Once the myelin is initially formed, they are necessary to maintain its integrity throughout life but can not or can replace destroyed myelin. cannont
These cells form and maintain the myelin sheaths around peripheral nerve axons. SCHWANN CELLS
can damage to myelin sheaths around peripheral nerve axons be regenerated by the Schwann cells. yes
General reactions to injury include cerebral edema
cerebral edema will lead to increased intracranial pressure
The clinical presentation is usually intermittent headache, mental slowness, confusion, and papilledema (swelling of the optic disc in the eye). cns reaction to injury
major life threatening complication of cns reaction to injury is herniation of the brain
uncal herniations, and tonsillar herniations respectively. subfalcine herniations,
The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is produced by the choroid plexus
csf is reabsorbed into the venous circulation through the arachnoid granulations
If hydrocephalus occurs before the cranial bones fuse in infancy, there is resultant enlargement of the head
The following symptoms are related to what: headache, nausea, vomiting increased intracranial pressure
Slowly progressive hydrocephalus, however, may not show elevated CSF pressures (normal pressure hydrocephalus) and may be clinically manifested by progressive dementia, gait disturbances, and incontinence.
This relates to compensatory ventricular dilation secondary to brain atrophy. Hydrocephalus ex-vacuo