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gonna be better

• Non-independence of traits in evolution, within-species, and among-species Within - genetic correlations & pleiotropy Among - mutualistic interactions, predator prey, host-parasite, & red queen hypothesis
Genetic correlations: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences Genes located close to each other on same chromosome will tend to be correlated. if they're far away from each other, they become uncoupled in crossover. Makes some traits appear together.
Pleiotropy: mechanisms and evolutionary consequences one gene has multiple phenotypic effects. Mechanisms? Consequences - also some stuff inevitably is always together. selection on one phenotype can cause correlated responses in other phenotypes
Red Queen hypothesis So much running just to stay in place. Coevolutionary arms race.
Evolutionary consequences of predator-prey relationships red queen. diversity is low with just prey & no evolution. diversity increases then drops back out with evolution & just prey. Diversity is highest with predator & evolution.
Evolutionary consequences of parasite-host relationships like nematodes & bacteria. nematodes can reproduce asexually normally, because sexual is more costly. But they become sexual because asexual gets knocked out fast by parasites. diversity is higher with both than just host.
Evolutionary consequences of mutualisms like the fungus and the tree. if one species is dependent on another, and you remove the fungus, the dependent species will decline and independent will increase. use absence of one as a control.
• What is a fossil and how is it formed, in what habitats/conditions? trace of an extinct organism, found in places with rapid burial, anaerobic environments, places like peat bogs
• What information about ecology and evolution can you get from fossils? Phenotypic history of life, (morphology, sometimes behavior). compression & casts/molds give you external phenotype. intact remains gives genetic info. permineralization gives internal/external phenotype, 3D shape, fine structures.
What are the limitations of the fossil record? taxonomic (hard shells, exoskel, burrowing, shallow marine), tissue (no soft parts), abundance (less rare organisms), habitat (fast sedimentation/anaerobic), temporal (younger rocks have better samples)
How do you date fossils? Isotopic dating techniques, of either the sample or the surrounding rock
Adaptive radiations: definition, causes, consequences (rapid diversification from a single ancestor to numerous lineages) -two types • ecological opportunity: new niches • morphological advancement – flower increase pollination, feathers enabled ability to fly
The importance of the Cambrian Explosion to animal and human evolution • increased oxygen level (aerobic respiration) • evolution of predation exerted pressure for predator avoidance (shells, mobility): the red queen hypothesis • new niches led to more new niches
Learn the “top 10 moments in the history of life”, and be able to scale each of those to a 5m piece of rope 4.6 Ga, earth. 3.7 Ga, first life. 1.8 Ga, first eukaryotes (plants fish etc). 1.2 Ga, first sexual repro. 600 Ma, first animals. 540 Ma, cambrian explosion. 435 Ma, land plants. 395 Ma, land vertebrates. 65Ma, loss of dinos. 200,000 Ka us.
Speciation: understand and be able to explain each of the three steps involved 1. Isolation of populations 2. Divergence between populations 3. Reproductive isolation of populations
Allopatric speciation speciation by geographic isolation. something extrinsic to the organisms prevents two or more groups from mating with each other regularly.
Modern Extinction Measurement Extinction is recorded locally but interpreted globally. How? – Direct observations. measure species/ area for half the area then use graph to interpret – Interpretation of Species-Area Curves (allows you to compare habitat loss to # of species lost)
What are the causes of extinction? Humans causing it at 1000 x background rate (habitat degradation, climate change). Natural - astrological, disease, acid rain, invasive species, sea level change, global temp cycles
What are the consequences of extinction: ecology AND evolution? WHAT DOES THIS EVEN MEAN?
Details of the K-P mass extinction event: specific causes, evidence for those causes, specific consequences Meteorite - iridium, shocked qtz & microtektites. SO2 acid rain, dust clouds, fire/soot/smog lead to cooling. Earthquakes, volcanism, co2 lead to warming & ocean acidification. Killed 75% of marine, 50% of genera. mz reptiles & dinos, ammonites, rudists X
• Be able to see both speciation and extinction on “the graph” of how selection works. Speciation and extinction are “species level” indices of fitness. the fuck is THE GRAPH? All we were told is that smaller/less distributed populations are more likely to go extinct.
Species concepts: biological o Definition o Application o Pros and cons If you reproductively isolate 2 populations entirely, they will begin speciation. Ex: orioles & salmon Problem: they need to be geographically close to prove it, can't find evidence in fossil record, doesn't apply to asexuals or most plants.
Species concepts: phylogenetic o Definition o Application o Pros and cons monophyly descendants of a single common ancestor most important, species should be defined by smallest statistically significant monophyletic groups. Issues: not easy to define what constitutes "significant" & # of species would double. Ex: afrielephants
Species concepts: morphological o Definition o Application o Pros and cons A more subjective classification. Organisms are classified in the same species if they appear identical by morphological (anatomical) criteria. This is used when species do not reproduce sexually, some are known only from fossils.
Isolation of populations Physical - stopping migration, no gene flow. Most common in small pops isolated at species edge. Vicariance - splitting into 2 pops. either fast (volcano, forest fragmentation etc) or slow (glaciation, orogeny, etc) Genetic - changes in chromosomes
Divergence between populations Genetic drift. Selection - via adaptation to novel environments. (Ex. apple maggots & hawthorn flies).
Reproductive Isolation If populations have diverged enough, hybrid offspring will have reduced fitness, so more assortative mating will happen.(reinforcement). Like mules & ligers.
Sympatric speciation speciation when groups occupy the same location when 2 conditions are met • strong selection for divergence • mate choice correlated with factor that is promoting divergence • behavioral isolation o birdsong o bonobos & chimps
Paleontological extinction measurement -global in extent, broad range of organisms -rapid effect relative to expected lifespan of taxa • end-Ordovician • late-Devonian • end Permian o most intense • end-Triassic • Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-P) o Most dramatic - acidification, meteorite
Stages of mitosis IPMATC. interphase prophase metaphase anaphase telophase cell division
Interphase • cells undergo metabolic activity to prepare for mitosis, including chromosome replication
prophase • chromatin in the nucleus begins to condense • centrioles begin moving to opposite ends of the cell • fibers extend from the centromeres
metaphase • spindle fibers align the chromosomes along the middle of the cell nucleus
anaphase • paired chromosomes separate and move to the opposite sides of the cell
telophase • chromatids arrive at opposite poles of cell, and new membranes form around the daughter nuclei
cell division • cell membrane (or wall) pinched in 2 daughter cells, each with one nucleus
Created by: haleyBUGoxox