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Unit 2 - Org of Life

Biological Processes, Cell Organelles, Energy Processes

TermDefinition
Structures parts of living things; each has their own function
Functions the role that a structure plays in keeping a living thing alive
Systems structures that work together to perform a function
Tissues a group of specialized cells that perform a specific function
Organelles a structure within the cell that carries out a specific fimction
Organ a body structure made of different kinds of tissues combined to perform a specific function
Digestion the process that breaks down large food molecules into simpler molecules that the organism can use
Respiration the process by which the chemical bond energy stored in nutrients is released for use in cells
Reproduction the process by which organisms produce new organisms of the same type
Circulation the flow of materials within a cell as well as between parts of a multicellular organism
Excretion the removal of all the wastes produced by the cells of the body
Membrane the thin boundary between a structure and its environment
Molecules atoms that are held together by bonds
Chemical signals molecules that move from sender to receiver to communicate information
Diffusion the movement of molecules from areas of high concentration to areas of low concentration
Active transport the process by which cells use energy to transport molecules through the cell membrane from areas of low concentration to areas of high concentration
Organic term used to describe molecules that contain both hydrogen and carbon
Inorganic a type of molecule that does not contain both carbon and hydrogen but can contain any other combination of elements
Chemical reaction a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
Protein large biological molecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Starch a carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units; produced by most green plants as an energy store
Amino acids any one of several building blocks of protein
Simple sugars the result of the digestion of starches. Gludose is a simple sugar
Building blocks a basic unit from which a macromolecule is built up; examples include amino acids, nucleic acids, lipids, and simple sugars
Synthesis to put together
Compounds things that are composed of two or more separate elements; an example is water, because there are two elements—H and O
Specialized designed for a particular purpose
Transport the movement of objects around a body
Cytoplasm the jellylike substance that is between the cell membrane and the nucleus and that contains specialized structures
Nutrient a substance that provides the body with the materials and energy needed to carry out the basic life of cells
Mitochondria pod-shaped organelles that contain enzjones used to extract energy from nutrients
Ribosome one of the tiny structures in the cell that is the site of protein production
Cell membrane the thin boundary between the cell and its environment
Vacuole storage sacs within the cytoplasm of a cell that may contain either wastes or use materials, such as water or food
Nucleus a large structure within a cell that controls the cell's metabolism and stores genetic information, including chromosomes and DNA
Receptor certain protein molecules in the cell membrane that can receive chemical messages from other cells
Endocrine the body system involved in secreting hormones directly into the circulatory system
Hormone a chemical produced in the endocrine glands used for cell communication
Chemical Energy energy stored in the bonds of chemical compounds (atoms and molecules); released in a chemical reaction, often producing heat as a by product
Chloroplasts the green organelle that contains chlorophyll; where photos3mthesis takes place
Chlorophyll the molecules in chloroplasts that help convert light energy to chernical bond energy
Solar energy energy that comes from the sun
Carbon dioxide a compound molecule made of one carbon atom and two oxygen atoms; produced during cell respiration and used during photosynthesis
Water a compound molecule made of two hydrogen atom and one oxygen atom; needed for survival by all living things
Glucose a simple sugar; a basic building block of starch
Oxygen an element or molecule produced in the photosynthesis reaction; used during cellular respiration during the Kreb’s Cycle
Fat a group of organic compounds made of lipids
Bonds a force that holds atoms together; a place where chemical energy is stored; when broken, energy is released
Cellular respiration the process in which nutrients are broken apart, releasing the chemical energy stored in them
adenosine triphosphate a compound that stores energy in cells
Mitochondria pod-shaped organelles that contain enzjones used to extract energy from utrients
Biochemical processes a chemical process that occurs in a living thing; examples include digestion, absorption, synthesis and diffusion
Biological catalysts a substance that can speed up the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed or used up during the reaction
pH a measure of whether a substance is acidic, neutral, or basic
Temperature a measurement of heat in an object
Created by: mrcadettescience