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Cells

TermDefinition
Cell Theory 1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of life 3. All cells come from other cells
Prokaryotic cell cells that do NOT have membrane-bound organelles (NO nucleus)
Eukaryotic cell cells that have membrane-bound organelles (has a nucleus)
Cell membrane surrounds and protects the outside of the cell; lets certain things go in and out of the cell
Nucleus controls the activities of the cell
Mitochondria transform energy for the cell
Endoplasmic reticulum move materials throughout the cell
Golgi apparatus packages and sorts materials in the cell
Lysosome breaks down materials such as worn out organelles, food, viruses, and bacteria
Ribosomes makes proteins
Vacuole stores materials such as water, food, and enzymes; largest organelle in a plant cell
Chloroplast captures energy from the Sun; stores pigment which makes a plant GREEN
Cell wall Supports and protects the plant cell
diffusion Driven by the constant motion of molecules, molecules move down the concentration gradient high to low, or from, an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
What is passive transport? Energy output isn't required, based on the process of transfusion
Which 3 factors effect the rate of diffusion? Concentration, temperature and pressure
Osmosis Diffusion of water across a selectively permeable membrane
Isotonic solution When a cell is in a solution that has the same cell concentration of solutes and water (same amount on each side)
Hypotonic solution A solution with a lower concentration of solute, water diffuses into cell (pure water)
Hypertonic solution The concentration of the solute outside of the cell is higher than it is inside. Water diffuses out of the cell (sea water)
Active transport Movement of substances across the plasma membrane, against the concentration gradient. requires energy (low - high concentration)
Endocytosis A process by which a cell surrounds a substance in the outside environment enclosing the substance in a portion of the plasma membrane
During diffusion, which direction do molecules move on the concentration gradient? Down (high-low)
Phagocytosis "Cell eating" the taking in of solid particles
Phinocytosis "Cell drinking" The taking and of liquids
What occurs during exocytosis? Materials are expelled by diffusion of a vesicle with the membrane (Exo-exit)
Created by: smaske