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Wills Bio ML CH7.1+2

Cells and their organelles.

Cell Theory 1. All living organisms are composed of one or more cells. 2.The cell is the most basic unit of life. 3.All cells arise from pre-existing, living cells.
Robert Hooke invented microscope, 30x coined term cell
Anton van Leuwenhoek invented 300x, coined term animalcules
Prokaryotic cells commonly known as bacteria, have no membrane bound organelles, circular DNA, very small <10 um and capsules and pilli are unique to these cells, 20 min reproduction
Eukaryotic cells protists, fungi, plant and animal cells, have membrane bound organelles, linear DNA, large >10 um usually 60+, 24 hour reproduction
What to all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells have in common cytoplasm, ribosomes, DNA, cell membrane
Cell wall (Plant) forms the structure of a plant cell made of the stiff sugar cellulose, has large holes in it so that nutrients can enter and leave the cell.
Cell membrane (Both) forms a boundary between the inside an outside of the cell, made of a phospholipid bilayer, controls what goes into and out of the cell
Cytoplasm (Both) includes everything between the nucleus and the cell membrane including cytosol a liquid that has nutrients dissolved in it.(macromolecules)
Cytoskeleton (Both) made of microfilaments (movement), microtubules(highways for molecules) and Intermediate fibers (hold organelles in place), helps the cell move, keep its shape, and organize its parts.
Nucleus (Both) Organelle responsible for the organizing DNA. Controls the actions and organizations of the cell.
Nucleolus (Both) makes ribosomes (in nucleus)
Ribosomes (Both) factories the synthesis proteins (building blocks of cells), free, in cytoplasm, bound, on RER
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (Both) a system of membranes that assist the in the production, processing and transporting of proteins and has ribosomes attached to the membrane.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (Both) a system of membranes that assist the in the production, processing and transporting of lipids. No Ribosomes
Golgi Apparatus (Both) a system of membranes that make and package materials to leave the cell. Usually repackaging thing from the ER.
Vescicles/vacuoles (Both) any sac that contains materials (storeroom so that things can be stored or transported)
Lg central vacuole (Plant) largest part of a plant cell used for storage of water and ions, it also keeps the cell from collapsing.
Lysosomes (Both) a vesicle that has digestive enzymes, recycles old/damaged organelles
Mitochondria (Both) uses sugar to recharge ATP the energy of the cell through the process of cellular respiration
Chloroplasts (Plant) uses CO2 and water to make sugar through the process of photosynthesis
Centrioles/centrosome only found in (animal cells only) made of proteins that assist in mitosis. Cellular reproduction.
Difference between animal and plant cells plant only (cell wall, chloroplasts, lg. central vacuole) Animal only (centrioles)
Levels of Organization < to > cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, organism
How is protein made and transported through cell Nucleus(DNA blueprint for protein)>RNA(message to ribo)>Ribosome(assembles protein)>RER(modifies, packages, stores protein)>vesicle(transports)>Golgie(modifies and repackages)>vesicle>cell membrane(exports from cell)
Created by: mrwillsshs