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Child Health: Toddle

PVAMU: Growth & Development Toddler (Exam1)

Toddler period encompasess _(1)__ years to__(2)__years (1) 1 years (2) 3 years
Weight gian is _______ pounds per year 3-5 lbs
Length/height increases by ______inches per year 3 inches
Toddlers reach about 1/2 their adult height by _____ years 2 years old
Head circumference increases about _(1)_ inches form when the child is between _(2)__years and then increase __(3)__inches per year until age 5 (1) 1 inch (2)1-2 years old (3)1/2 inch
The brain reaches _(1)_ of its adult size by _(2)__ years of age (1)90% (2)2 years old
Myelinization fo the brian and spinal cord is complete around 24 months
Myelinization improves_______ Coordination, equilibrium, the ability to exercis sphincter contorl.
Stool passage decreases in frequency to _____ per day one to two times
Bladder and kidney function reach adult levles by ______ 16-24 months
Urine Output 1 mL/kg/hour
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt It is a time of exerting independence. Since the toddler developed a sense of trust in infancy, he or she is ready to give up dependence and to assert his or her sense of control and autonomy
By _(1)__ years of age the toddler walks in a __(2)__ fashin similar to that of adults (1) 3 years old (2) heel-to-toe
Toddler vision should be _____ in both eyes 20/50 to 20/40 OU
Hearing should be at the _____ level adult
Gross Motor Skills: 12-15 Months Walks independently
Gross Motor Skills: 18 Months Climbs stairs with assistance~Pulls toys while walking
Gross Motor Skills: 24 Months Runs~Kicks ball~Can stand on tiptoe~Carries several toys, or a large toy while walking~Climbs onto and down from furniture without assistance
Gross Motor Skills: 36 Months Climbs well~Pedals tricycle~Runs easily~Walks up and down stairs with alternate feet~Bends over easily without falling
Fine Motor Skills: 12-15 Months Feeds self finger foods~Uses index finger to point
Fine Motor Skills: 18 Months Masters reaching, grasping, and releasing: stacks blocks, puts things in slots~Turns book pages (singly with board book, multiple if paper)~Removes shoes and socks~Stacks four cubes
Fine Motor Skills: 24 Months Builds tower of six or seven cubes~Right- or left-handed~Imitates circular and vertical strokesScribbles and paints~Starting to turn knobs~Puts round pegs into holes
Fine Motor Skills: 36 Months Undresses self~Copies circle~Builds tower of nine or ten cubes~Holds a pencil in writing position~Screws/unscrews lids, nuts, bolts~Turns book pages one at a time
Echolalia Repetition of words and phrases without understanding
Young todlers begin to use short sentences by ____ years old 2 years old
Telegraphic Speech Speech that contains only the essential words to get the point across like a telegram
At age _(1)_ the bilingual child may _(2)_ (1) 1-2 years old (2) blend languages (parts of the word in both language)
By the age of _____ the bilingual toddler mix languages with in a sentence. 2-3 years old
Egocentrism Focusing on one's self
Separation Anxiety (Ages) 18-24 months reemerges and may stop around 24-36 months
Toddlers typically play this way Parallel Play: Playing along side each other
Toddlers need _(1)_ minutes of structured physical activity and _(2)_ hours of unstructred physical activity per day (1) 30 minutes (2) 1 hour
Concerns: After independent walking for several months Persistent tiptoe walking~Failure to develop a mature walking pattern
Concerns: By 18 Months Not walking~Not speaking 15 words~Does not understand function of common household items
Concerns: By 2 Years Does not use two-word sentences or follow basic instructions~Cannot push a toy with wheels
Concerns: By 3 Years Difficulty with stairs~Frequent falling~Cannot build tower > four blocks~Difficulty manipulating small obj~Extreme separation anxiet~Cannot copy a circle~No make-believe play~Can't speak in short phrases~Doesn't understand simple instructions (pg 119)
All children over _(1)__ pounds adn up to _(2)__ pounds should in a forward facing car seat with harness straps and clips (1) 20 lbs (2) 40 lbs
Weaning form the bottle should occur by _____ age 12 to 15 months
Calcium requirements 500 mg/day
Iron-deficiency anemia in the first _(1)_ years of life may be associated with _(2)_ (1) 2 years (2) developmental and psychomotor delays
T/F: Fat/cholestero intake shouldn't be restricted in children under 2 years old True
Physiologic Anorexia Toddlers simply do not require as much food intake for their size as they did in infancy
Food Jags Toddler may prefer only one particular food for several days, then not want it for weeks.
Toddler should have full set of teeth by _____. 30 months
Beginning at _(1)_ brush toddlers teeth with _(2)_ (1) 2 years old (2) Fluoridated toothpaste
Excessive fluoride ingestion cna lead to ____. Fluorosis (molting of the enamel).
Toddler discipline should be focused on ____. Limit setting, negotiation, and techniques to assist the toddler to learn problem solving.
Time Out is effective around ____ yers old. 2.5 to 3 years old
Extinction Involves systematic ignoring of the undesired behavior
Toliet training should begin around ____. 2 years old when myelinization of spinal cord is achieved.
Best time to place child on toliet is _____. after a meal.
Regression may occur during ____. A stressful event. Toddler may go back to an earlier stage. Parents should ignore the regressive behavior and offer praise for age-appropriate behavior or attainment of skills.
Magical Thinking The preschooler believes that his or her thoughts are all-powerful. Through make-believe and magical thinking, preschool children satisfy their curiosity about differences in the world around them.
Created by: sparklerobinson