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UCO Music History

QuestionAnswer
What are the three Greek tetrachords? Chromatic, Enharmonic, Diatonic
Who was more important to music theory in the Middle Ages, Pythagoras of Aristoxenus? Pythagoras
Why is St. Augustine important to western music? His philosophies about music are the main reason music is/was accepted as a form of worship in the church.
What does Melismatic mean? Many notes per syllable.
What events are related in the temporal cycle of the liturgy? The life and teachings of Jesus.
What are the two main worship services of the Catholic church? Mass and Office
What is the final characteristic used to define mode? The final (note of a chant)
Why is the Musica Enchiriadis important? It contains the first real definitions on mode and organum.
What does the "ordinary" refer to? The part of mass that happens every service.
What is Notre Dame Polyphony? Organum music developed in the 12th century containing three sections- melismatic organum, plainchant, and discant.
What was the first western secular art music? Music of the Troubadors
What was the first liturgical drama? Easter
Rhythmic characteristic of discant The two lines use mostly the same rhythms.
Musical characteristics typical of music in the 14th century Ars Nova? Duple meter, Music written for 3 parts, the use of thirds and sixths, treble dominated voicing.
Who wrote the treatise, Ars Nova? Phillip De Vitry
What is the Polytextual Motet? New text set in the top voice and an original chant in the lower voice; multiple texts at one time.
What is important about the Conductus? The first form of entirely new polyphonic music
Who was Leonin? The first famous composer of Notre Dame Organum
What is the rhythmic characteristic of a Franconian motet? rhythmic layers- fast, medium, slow
What is the Roman de Fauvel The satire type novel criticizing the catholic church; making their corruption public.
Does sacred or secular music dominate the 14th century? Secular
How many parts are characteristic of 14th century music Three
What is a tetrachord? A four note scale spanning the interval of a fourth
What was the schola cantorum? The school of singing in Rome.
What is an antiphon? The syllabic verse added to an original psalmody.
What is the main characteristic of modal notation? It relays rhythm.
What was the first form of western musical notation called? unheightened
What are the two main worship services of the catholic church? Mass and Office
What is a tonary? A book of notated liturgy or chants.
Which of the three types of chant is declamatory? Direct
Which was the most musical important canonical hour? Vespers
What is the Gradual? A book with music of the mass.
What were the two parts of Charlemagne's unification strategy for his kingdom? Uniform religion and language.
What is the melodic style of an antiphon? Syllabic
Which is the more important liturgical cycle, Temporal or Sanctoral? Temporal: concerns the daily events of Jesus.
What is a neume? A symbol that represents a note.
What is a ligature? Two or more notes bound together
In which century did western musical notation probably originate? 8th century
What is organum? The earliest form of polyphony.
Why is Boethius important for the history of western music? He translated the Quadrivium into latin which preserved the pythagorean theorems which our western system of tuning is based on.
What is the harmonic series? A series of overtone pitches sounding over a fundamental generating pitch/
What are the five parts of the mass ordinary in order? Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
How many texts are in the 15th c. motet? One
What creates the characteristic sound of the English style? Triads, the use of thirds and sixths in parallel motion, and carefully controlled and resolved dissonance.
The composers of what specific region transmitted the English style to the rest of Europe? Burgundy
What is continuous melody? The melody continues over what could have been a cadence point.
What is Head Motive? The statement of a melodic motive successively in each voice of a composition; like a fugue.
What is the Point of Imitation? The place where the new idea is introduced.
What is Word Painting? The composer's attempt at setting music to text, ultimately up to the vocalist's interpretation.
What is Continuous Imitation? The use of imitation as the basic contrapuntal technique in composition. The counterpoint is based on imitation- on going.
What is the "tactus"? Pulse
What is text setting? Setting a syllable to a note; opposite of word painting where music was set to a poem. Text setting is about setting words to the music.
What is the cantus firms technique? Composition based on a preexisting melody
When was the Council of Trent? 1550
What was the big issue of the Council of Trent? The catholic response to the Lutheran reformation
What was the impact of the Council of Trent on music? Simplifying liturgical music; it had gotten too busy and hard to understand the text.
What were the three reformations? Lutheran, Catholic, and English
In which composer's music would you expect to find pervasive imitation, Josquin or Palestrina? Josquin
In which composer's music would you expect to find more word painting, Palestrina or Vittoria? Vittoria
What is word painting? The composer's attempt at matching music to text.
What is one way that Palestrina insures clarity of the text? Simple rhythms
What is voice pairing? Texture alteration; voices adding in or dropping out at specific times.
Which genre has sections that reflect poetic structure, Parisian chanson or madrigal? Parisian chanson
What did "through composition" of madrigals allow for? Continuous melody and a more free structure without repeated sections.
In which would you expect to find more elaborate polyphony, parisian chanson or middle era madrigal? Middle era madrigal
In which would you expect to find dissonance for word painting, late madrigal or Palestrina mass? Late madrigal
Which two distinguishing characteristics of mode were first identified? The final and range
What is the innovative characteristic of modal notation? Rhythmic notation
What improvement does mensural notation make? Clarification of meter and subdivision
What is successive composition? A compositional technique where the tenor line is completely written, another line written based off the tenor and the other lines based off only one other voice- creates dissonance.
What is the second prattica and what are its two distinctive musical characteristics ? a new contrapuntal style developed in the baroque period; it's two characteristics are dissonance and word painting to evoke emotion
What is the main intent of baroque music? to relay and evoke emotion
What is a ritornello? a returning instrumental interlude between strophes in a strophic aria
What is a ground bass form? A short, usually eight bar, simple bass line that is constant and played continuously through out the piece.
What is the practice of diminution? A type of ornamentation interpreted by the performer to break a long note (in value) up into it's subdivisions
What is a monody? A single voiced line with basso continuo accompaniment
What are color and talea? melodic and rhythmic components of the cantus firms technique
What was Maffei? a technique book for singers but was also used by instrumentalists.
What is Favola in music? a story in music
What was the sacred contrapuntal style of the Rennaisance? Prima pratica
How did the French Tragédie Lyrique differ from the Italian Opera Seria? It was performed exclusively for aristocrats and consisted of simple, melodic lines to emphasize the text.
How did the Italian Opera Seria differ from the French Tragédie Lyrique? It was middle class entertainment. The melodies were elaborate and intricate to show off the virtuosity of the singers, the emphasis was on the music.
What is the main influence on French music? Dance
What did the motet develop into? The multi movement cantata
What are the three different instrumental concertos? Concerto Ripieno, Concerto Grosso, and Solo Concerto
What does ripieno mean? Full
What is a concerto ripieno? a work for a full ensemble without any separate soloist(s).
What is a concerto grosso? a type of concerto influenced particularly by the German vocal/instrumental concerto and its use of a select smaller vocal ensemble pitted against the full choir.
What is a solo concerto? the last and latest type of concerto to develop in the late 17th century.
What is distinct about Corelli's compositional style? He creates a dialogue that goes back and forth.
What is distinct about Vivaldi's compositional style? He used a regular structure of alteration and adapted the ritornello form
What was the concerto gross written by Bach? Brandenburg
What are the three aspects of Torelli's concerto ritornello form? Texture alteration, Melodic Material, and Harmonic Structure
What is a Passacaglia? a ground bass form that serves as the foundation for a series of variations.
Why was Corelli important? He is the single most important figure for the development of western functional harmony and he set the standard baroque string setting (2violin, viola, and cello) As well as being a composer and violin virtuoso.
What do these all have in common: Sonata de camera, Ordre, Ouverture, Partita, Leçon, Lesson.. They are all different names for a "suite"
Who was it that reunited the French and Italian national styles? Muffat
What does PACSOG stand for? Prelude, Allemande, Courante, Sarabande, Optional..., Gigue
Created by: kelcie.scarberry