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AH- CH 34

Adult Health I

an _____ disease may not pose risk for transmission infectious
examples of infectious diseases are ___ and ____ viral meningitis and pneumonia
if the infectious disease can be transmitted directly from one person to another, it is termed ___ communicable disease
pathogens multiply and cause s/s ___ symptomatic
what happens to create an infection? infectious agent or pathogen, a reservior or source for pathogen growth, a portal of exit from reservior, a mode of tranmission, a portal of entry to a host, a susceptible host
microorganisms include ___, ____, ____, and ____ bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa
if hands are visibly soiled with proteinaceous material _____ is preferred hand hygiene practice soap and water
if hands are not visibly soiled _____ is the preferred hand hygiene practice alcohol-based hand product or hand washing with soap and water
the potential fro microorganisms to cause disease depends on what 4 things? dose, virulence, ability to enter and survive in the host, host resistance or susceptibility of the host
reservoir for hepatitis A feces
reservoir for hepatitis B blood and certain body fluids, sexual contact
reservoir for hepatitis C blood, centain bpdy fluids, and sexual contact
reservoir for herpes simplex virus type i lesions of the mouth or skin, saliva, genitalia
reservoir for HIV blood, semen, vainal secretions via sexual contact
what are diseases caused by herpes simplex virus type 1? cold sores, aseptic meningitis, sexually transmitted disease, herpetic whitlow
reservoir for aspergillus organisms (fungi) soil, dust, mouth, skin, colon, genital tract
reservoir for candida albicans (fungi) mouth, skin, colon, genital tract
what are diseases caused by aspergillus organisms? apergillosis, pneumonia, sepsis
what are diseases caused by candida albicans? candidiasis, pneumonia, sepsis
reservoir for plasmodium falciparum (protozoa) blood
what is a disease caused by plasmodium falciparum? malaria
reservoir for e.coli colon
what are diseases caused by e.coli? gastroenteritis, UTI
reservoir for staphylococcus aureus skin, hair, anterior nares, mouth
what are diseases caused by staph aureus? wound infections, pnuemonia, food poisioning, cellulitis
reservoir for streptococcus beta hemolytic group A organisms oropharynx, skin, perineal area
what are diseases caused by strept beta hemolytic group A? "strep throat," rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, impetigo, wound infection
what are diseases caused by strept beta hemolytic group A? UTI, wound infection, postpartum sepsis, neonatal sepsis
reservoir for streptococcus beta hemolytic group A organisms adult genitalia
reservoir for mycobacterium tuberculosis droplet nuclei from lungs, larynx
what disease does mycobacterium tuberculosis cause? TB
reservoir for neisseria gonorrhoeae genitourinary tract, rectum, mouth
what are diseases caused by neisseria gonorrhoeae? gonorrhea, pelvic inflam disease, infectious arthritis, conjuctivitis
reservoir for rickettsia rickettsii wood tick
what diseases are caused by rickettsia rickettsii? rocky mountain spotted fever
reservoir for staphylococcus epidermidis skin
what diseases are caused by staphylococcua epidermidis? wound infection, bacteremia
hep A survives in ____ but does not multiply shellfish
most common reservoir human body
psedomonas organisms survive where? nebulizers
causes botulism and survives in improperly processes foods closteridium botulinum
causes legionnaires disease and survives in contaiminated water and water systems legionella pneumopila
to thrive organisms needs 6 things in their environment proper food, water, oxygen, temperature, pH, and light
causes gas gangrene clostridium perfringens
clostridium difficile is an ____ bacteria anaerobic
temperature that prevents growth is called (example cold temps) bacteriostasis
a temperature that destroys bacteria is called bactericidal
most bacteria prefer a pH of ___ 5-7
person to person (fecal to oral) is ___ contact direct
physical contact between source and susceptible hose is___ contact direct
personal contact of susceptible host with contaminated inanimate object is ___ contact indirect
large particles that travel up to 3 feet and come in contact with susceptible host is droplet transmission
droplet nuclei, or residue or evaporated droplets suspended in air or carried on dust particles are ____ airborne transmission
contaiminated items, water, drugs, solutions, blood, and food are ____ vehicles transmission
external mechanical transfer, internal transmission such as parasitic conditions between vector and host such as mosquito, louse, flea, and tick are ___ vector transmission
what are 4 modes of transmission? contact, airborne, vehicles, and vectors
hep A, shigella, staph are ___ transmission direct contact
hep B, hep C, HIV, staph, respiratory syncytial virus, pseudomonas, methicillin-resistant staph aureus are ___ transmission indirect contact
flu, rubella virus, bacterial meningitis are ___ transmission droplet contact
mycobacterium TB, varicella zoster virus, aspergillus, measles are ___ transmission airborne
vibrio cholerae, MRSA are ___ transmission contaiminated items (vehicles)
pseudomonas, legionells are ___ transmission water (vehicles)
pseudomonas is ___ transmission drugs, solutions (vehicles)
hep B, hep C, HIV, syphillis are ___ transmission blood (vehicles)
salmonella, e. coli, clostridium botulinum are ___ transmission food (vehicles)
v. cholerae is ___ transmission external mechanical transfer (vector)
plasmodium falciparum (malaria), west nile are ___ transmission mosquito (vector)
rickettsia typhi is ___ transmission louse (vector)
yersinia pestis (plague) is __ transmission flea (vector)
borrelia burgdorferi (lyme disease) is ___ transmission tick (vector)
interval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptoms incubation period
interval from onset of nonspecific s/s to more specific s/s. during this time, microorganisms grow and multiply, and client may be capable of spreading disease to tohers prodromal stage
interval when client manifests s/s specific to type of infection illness stage
interval when acute s/s of infection disappear convalescence
develops when broad-specturm antibiotics are used and eliminate a large range of normal flora organisms suprainfection
after tissues are injured, a series of well-coordinated events occur (3 things) vascular and cellular responses. formation of inflam exudates, and tissue repair
is a process that invloves the destruction and absorption of bacteria phagocytosis
an increased number of circulation WBC in the body's response to WBC leaving blood vessels leukocytosis
____ is caused by phagocytic release of pyrogens from bacterial cells that cause a rise in teh hypothalamic set point fever
clear, like plasma fluid serous
contains RBC fluid sanguineous
contains WBC and bacteria fluid purulent
infection resulting from delivery of health services in a health care facility iatrogenic
a nosocomial infection that results from an outside exposure to client exogenous
an infection that results from part of a pt's normal flora being altered and overgrowth results (example antibiotics) endogenous
___ are teh most common cause of communicable illnesses in young to middle-aged adults viruses
clients who have surgery require an increased intake of ___ protein
normal WBC count 5000-10000
increases WBC indicates ___ acute infection
decreased WBC indicates ____ certain viral or overwhelming infections
normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR or sed rate) up to 15mm/hr for men and 20mm/hr for women
increased sed rate indicates ___ inflammatory process
normal iron level 60-90g/100ml
decreased iron level indicates __ chronic infection
what is the normal outcome of a culture and gram stain of a wound, sputum, and throat? no WBC and gram stain, possiblr normal flora
on a culture and gram stain, what indicates infecction? presence of infectious microorganism growth and WBC on gram stain
what percentage of WBC should neutophils be? 55-70
what percentage of WBC should lymphocytes be? 20-40
what percentage of WBC should monocytes be? 5-10
what percentage of WBC should eosinophils be? 1-4
what percentage of WBC should basophils be? 0.5-1.5
increase in neutrophils indicates __ acute suppurative (pus forming) infection
decrease in neutrophils indicates ___ overwhelming bacterial infection (older adult)
increase in lymphocytes indicates ___ chronic bacterial and viral infection
decrease in lymphocytes indicates ___ sepsis
increase in monocytes indicates ___ protozoan, rickettsial, and TB infections
increase in eosinophils indicates __ parasitic infection
basophils present are ___ in an infection normal
WBC < 5000 indicates ___ impaired immunity
a defining characteristic of infection is the CD4 cells being __ low
the absence of patogenic microorganisms aseptic
medical asepsis is __ clean technique
primary source of infection transmission in the health care setting health care workers contaminated hands
process that eliminates many or all microorganisma with the exception of bacerial spores from inanimate objects disinfection
alchols, chlorines, glutaraldehydes, hydrogen peroxide, and phenols are examples of __ disinfectants
is the complete elimination of all mircoorganisms, including spores sterilization
steam under pressure, ethylene oxide gas, hydrogen peroxide plasma, and chemicals are examples of ___ steilizing agents
never raise a drainage system above the level of the ____ site being drained unless it is clamped off
1st and most important tiered is __ standard precautions
2nd tiered is ___ addresses isolation precautions, which are based on the mode of transmission of the disease
isolation precautions are termed ___, ___, ___, and ___ airborne, droplet, contact, protective environment
are protein molecules released by bacteria to affect host cells at a distant site toxins
are produced and released by certain bacteria into the surrounding environment exotoxins
are produced in the cell walls of certain bacteria and released only with cell lysis endotoxins
bacteria in the blood stream bacteremia
completes the chain of infection portal of exit
deliberate failure to take medication nnoncompliance
accidential failure to take medication nonadherence
health care worker must observe and validate client compliance with drug regimen directly observed therapy
body tissue, phagocytosis, and inflammation are ___ defenses nonspecific
immune system are ___ defenses specific
a differential count usually shows a shift to the ___ during active infections left....increased number of immature neutophils
___ and ____ are the most common types of drugs used when infection is accompanied by hypertherma (fever) antipyretics and antimicrobials
systemic sepsis septicemia
insufficient cardiac output is compounded by hypovolemia; inadequate blood supply to vital organs leads to hypoxia and metabolic failure septic shock or sepsis-induced distributive shock
what are the 5 types of leukocyte WBC? neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils
malaria and mononucleosis are infections that are associated with ____ neutropenia (<neutrophils)
measures the rate in which RBC fall through plasma ESR (sed rate)
reinfection or a second infection superinfection
Created by: TayBay15
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