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Tobira Ch2 文法

文型 (読み) ぶんけい (漢字)
ぶんけい (意味) sentence pattern (Translate to Japanese)
英訳 (読み) えいやく (漢字)
えいやく (意味) English translation (Translate to Japanese)
~なければ{いけない/ならない}; ~なくては{いけない/ならない} have to; must; should
{なくては/なければ}いけない vs. ならない ならない commonly used to state one's own sense of obligation. いけない commonly used when the sense of obligation is directed toward the hearer.
{なくては/なければ} ならない ならない can be omitted
なければ casual conversation form なきゃ
なくては casual conversation form なくちゃ
{なくては/なければ}ならない casual conversation form なんない
~など indicates that the given list is not exhaustive. When more than one item is listed, や is commonly used to connect them.
N1 や N2 など N1, N2, and others; N1, N2, etc.; N1 and N2 among others
N1 や N2 などのN3 N3 such as N1 and N2; N3 like N1 and N2
N1 や N2 など、 N3 N3 such as N1 and N2; N3 like N1 and N2
~など、文型(ぶんけい, sentence pattern) N1やN2など({は/も/が/を/に/の/etc.}) (N1 and N2 can be words or phrases as in a book example.)
Xは~の一つだ describes X while indicating that it is not the only example, object, person, etc.
Xは~の一つだ, 英訳 X is one of the ~
Xは~の一つだ、文型 NはNPの{一つ/一人}だ。
Noun にとって If Noun is X, means "to X; for X" in a context where something (or someone) is important to X, or is necessary, useful, good, difficult, etc. for X, X is often a person, a geographic unit or an organization.
Nounの代わりに After the に, presents something/someone that is replacing or has replaced something/someone that comes before the の.
Nounの代わりに, additional note When the context is clear, Noun の can be omitted.
~ため(に) Preceded by a noun or the non-past form of a verb. Indicates either 1. Purpose or 2. Reason; cause 3. Benefit.
~ため(に)1, 英訳 in order to; to; for the purpose of; for; for the sake of
~ため(に)2, 英訳 because; due to
~ため(に)2, further note Can be replaced by ~から or ~ので, which are less formal than ~ために.
AかBか either A or B; whether A or B. Presents alternatives.
AかBか + case particle usually the second か is dropped
case particle e.g. が, を, へ, に, で, と
ようになる indicates a gradual change of a certain period of time; it means that someone (or something) comes to the point where he/she does (or can do) something or does not (or cannot) do something.
V - ないようになる same as V - なくなる but more gradual
ようにする to be sure to; to do (something) so that ...; to make sure to
~必要[読み:ひつよう]{がある/はない} This phrase is used to indicate the necessity of doing something. は is common with a ngative ending.
~必要[読み:ひつよう]{がある/はない}, 文型 V-plain.non-past 必要{がある/はない}
場合[読み:ばあい] case, occasion, situation
~場合[読み:ばあい](は/には) when; if; in case
~場合[読み:ばあい](は/には), type adverbial phrase/clause
~場合[読み:ばあい](は/には), sometimes equivalent word to 場合 時 when referring to a "case, occasion, or situation" not a specific time (like after you went somewhere)
A{では・じゃ}なく(て)B indicates that a certain piece of information is wrong and, following that, to present the correct information.
Created by: ncommons