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Molecules of Cells

Water and Living Things

hydrogen bond when a covalently bonded hydrogen is positive and is attracted to a negatively charged atom some distance away
hydrophilic ions and molecules that interact with water
hydrophobic non-ionized and non-polar molecules that do not interact with water
acids molecules that dissociate in water and release hydrogen ions (H+)
base bitter taste; molecules that either take up hydrogen ions (H+) or release hydrogen ions (OH-)
example of an acid hydrochloric acid: HCl >>> H+ + Cl-
example of a base sodium hydroxide: NaOH >>> Na+ + OH-
buffer a chemical or a combination of chemicals that keeps pH within normal limits; buffers resist pH changes because they can take up excess hydrogen ions (H+) or hydroxide ions (OH-)
inorganic molecules constitute non-living matter, such as salts and water; play important roles in living things
organic molecules the molecules that make up life; always contain carbon (C) and hydrogen (H)
functional group a particular cluster of atoms that always behaves in a certain way
example of functional group acidic (carboxyl) group >>> COOH because it can give up a hydrogen (H+) and ionize to COO-
monomer a simple organic molecule that exits individually or can link with other monomers to form a polymer
examples of monomers monosaccharide, amino acid, nucleotide
polymer when monomers link together they form a polymer
examples of polymers carbohydrate (ie. starch), protein, nucleic acid
deyhrdation reaction a common way of joining monomers to build polymers; an OH (hyrdoxyl group) and an H (hydrogen atom, the equivalent of a water molecule) are removed as the reaction proceeds
hydrolysis reaction it degrades macromolecules in which components of water are removed
carbohydrates the first and foremost function for quick and short-term energy storage in all organisms, including humans
monosaccharide a carbohydrate that is a single sugar, meaning the number of carbon atoms in a molecule is low
pentose a 5-carbon sugar
hexose a 6-carbon sugar
glucose a type of hexose that is blood sugar
disaccharide two monosaccharides that have joined together during a dehydration reaction
glycogen a ready storage form of glucose in animals
starch a ready storage form of glucose in plants
cellulose a type of polysaccharide that functions as a structural component of cells; it is found in cell walls
adenosine triphosphate (ATP) a nucleoside triphosphate used in cells as a coenzyme; it is often called a "molecular unit of currency" for intracellular energy transfer
amino acid biologically important organic compounds composed of amine (-NH2) and carboxylic acid (-COOH) functional groups
complementary base pairing either of the nucleotide bases linked by a hydrogen bond on opposite strands of DNA or double-stranded RNA
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes; it is a carrier of genetic information
dipeptide a peptide composed of two amino-acid residues
double helix a pair of parallel helices intertwined about a common axix, especially that in the structure of the DNA molecule
hemoglobin iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that combines with and transports oxygen
lipid organic compound that is insoluble in water; notably fats, oils, and steroids
peptide bond covalent bond that joins two amino acids
neutral fat non polar fat, glycerol bound to 3 fatty acids
nucleic acids DNA and RNA, control cellular function
nucleotide monomer of DNA and RNA consisting of 5-carbon sugar bonded to a nitrogen consisting base and a phosphate group
pH used to express the acidity or alkalinity of a solution on a scale of 0 to 14, where less than 7 represents acidity, 7 neutrality, and more than 7 alkalinity
phospholipid a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
polarity tendency of a molecule or a compound, to be attracted or repelled by electrical charges because of its asymmetrical arrangement of electrons around the nucleus
polypeptide a liner organic polymer consisting of a large number of amino acids residues bonded together in a chain, form part of a protein molecule
polysaccharide a carbohydrate such as starch whose molecules consist of a number of sugar molecules bonded together
primary structure the characteristic sequence of amino acids forming a protein or polypeptide chain
protein A molecule composed of polymers of amino acids joined together by peptide bonds. It can be distinguished from fats and carbohydrates by containing nitrogen. Other components include carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, sulphur, and sometimes phosphorus.
quaternary structure a structure level where in several proteins interact through non-covalent bonds to form one function protein complex
R-group the chemcal group attatched to the alpha carbon in amino acids
saturated fatty acids a fatty acid whose carbon chain contains no unsaturated linkages between carbon atoms
secondary structure a structure of biological molecule characterized by the local folding with in bio-polymer as a result of hydrogen bonding
nitrogenous base nitrogen-bearing compound with chemical properties of a base
unsaturated fatty acid a form of fatty acid containing one or more double bonds and therefore can absorb additional hydrogen atoms
solvent the liquid in which a solute is dissolved to form a solution
tertiary structure the three dimensional structure of a protein or nucleic acid. amino acids form secondary structures as alpha helix
steroid any of a large class of organic compounds with a characteristic molecule structure
Created by: jdelmonte