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# Beyond the Big Bang

### A collection of important questions from the Beyond the Big Bang

Define hypothesis A supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation
Define theory A supposition or series of ideas intended to explain something, especially one based on general principles independent of what is to be explained
Define law A statement of fact, deduced from observation, to the effect that a particular natural or scientific phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions are present
What is the unit of measurement for gravitational force Newtons - N
What is the gravitational equation? F = Gx(m1xm2)/rsquared
Define wavelength The distance between 2 identical points in a wave (e.g. crest, trough to trough etc)
Define frequency The number of waves per second. If one wave passes in one second it has a frequency of one Hertz or Hz. This is the unit of frequency.
Define amplitude The height of the wave crest (or depth of the trough) from the middle
Define speed (in terms of waves) Wave speed is the wave frequency x the wavelength
What is the wave equation and what does it mean? v = f λ, v = speed, f = wavelength and λ = frequency.
What are the components of the EM spectrum? (order by frequency) Radio, Microwave, Infrared, Visible Light, Ultraviolet, X-Ray, Gamma ray
What is the first law of reflection? The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the reflection surface at the point of the incidence lie in the same plane.
Define refraction The change in direction of a wave due to its transition medium (object which it passes through)
What are the properties of waves? Amplitude, Wavelength, Period, Frequency and Speed
What is the Doppler effect? The Doppler effect is the change in wavelength of a form of EM radiation when it travels between two objects that are moving closer or further away from each other.
What is the red shift? A red shift occurs when EM radiation increases in wavelength and moves to the red end of the spectrum
Describe stellar evolution in steps Stellar Cloud -> small star -> planetary nebula ->white dwarf Stellar Cloud -> large star -> red supergiant -> supernova ->neutron star or black hole
Describe galaxies consists of stars, compact stars, gas, dust and dark matter that are gravitationally bound together. Can have planets, star clusters, star systems and interstellar clouds. They can have 10 million to 100 trillion stars.
Describe stars luminous spheres of plasma held together by gravity. They have a core of hydrogen being fused to helium giving them their glow. They are formed from hydrogen gas and heavier elements found within stellar clouds or nebulae.
Describe nebulas Clouds of interstellar gas and dust. They are often extremely large but very light in weight. Many nebulae have regions where stars can form.
Describe the solar system star system containing the Sun and the objects that orbit it and the objects that orbit those objects etc. The largest eight of these are planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. It was formed 4.6 billion years ago
What is the structure of the earth? (from most inner to most outer) Inner Core, outer core, mantle, crust, atmosphere
Describe mantle convection As the inner core heats the mantle, cooler parts begin to sink down and heat up, causing a current in the mantle. This current causes the tectonic plates on top of the mantle to move according to the flow of the currents.
Describe transverse waves Transverse waves are the most well known forms of waves. In transverse waves, the vibrations are at a right angle to the direction at which they travel.
Describe compression waves Tightly coiled waves as the vibrations are along the same direction in which they travel i.e. they are at a straight angle to the direction of travel. Compression waves also compress and stretch the medium they travel through at different points.
What kind of waves are P, S and L waves respectively Compression body, transverse body, transverse surface
Define epicentre The point on the Earth’s surface vertically above the focus of an earthquake
Define focus The point of origin of an earthquake. The ground ruptures at this spot and seismic waves travel outward.
Explain the Mercalli scale A seismic scale that measures the effects of an earthquake. The scale represents the earthquake’s effects on the surface, environment, humans, natural objects and creatures and man-made structures on a scale of I (not felt) to XII (total destruction).
Define ecosystem An ecosystem is a biological community of interacting interdependent organisms with their physical environment.
What is the respiration word equation Glucose + Oxygen ---> Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy
What is the photosynthesis word equation Light energy + carbon dioxide + water = glucose + oxygen
What is a food chain the sequence of who eats whom in an ecosystem to obtain nutrition.
What are the levels of a food chain from lowest to highest Primary source, autotrophs, herbivores, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers, quarternary consumers, detrivores
How does the carbon cycle work? Carbon is produced by many different sources which is then stored in water where it is then used by plants for photosynthesis
What is the greenhouse effect? A layer of gases that reflect light and heat back onto earth but do not let it out
Describe some alternative energy resources Solar, Wind, geothermal, biofuel, hydrogen fuel, hydroelectric
Created by: Dylan_2211

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