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Quarter1 test reveiw

QuestionAnswer
Atmosphere blanket of gases surrounding Earth that contains about 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and 1% other gasses such as argon, carbon dioxide, and water vapor.
Biosphere all of Earth's organisms and the environments in which they live.
Geosphere The part of the earth from its surface to its center
Hydrosphere all the water on the earth and in its atmosphere.
Scientific Law a principle that describes the behavior of a natural phenomenon.
Scientific Theory an explanation based on many observations during repeated experiments; valid only if consistent with observations, can be used to make testable predictions, and is the simplest explanation; can be changed or modified with the discovery of new data.
Cleavage the manner in which a mineral breaks along planes where atomic bonding is weak.
Fracture when a mineral breaks into pieces with arc-like, rough, or jagged edges.
Hardness measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched, which is determined by the arrangement of mineral's atoms.
Luster the way that a mineral reflects light from its surface; two types- metallic and non metallic.
Steak color a mineral leaves when it is rubbed across an unglazed porcelain plate or when it is broken up and powdered.
Fractional Crystallization process in which different minerals crystallize from magma at different temperatures, removing elements from magma.
Pegmatite vein deposits of extremely large-grained minerals that can contain rare ores such as lithium and beryllium.
Independent Variable The factor that is changed by the experimenter.
Dependent Variable a factor that is affected by the changes in the independent variable
Constants not changing
Hypothesis A tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific problem that can be tested by further investigation.
Control A standard of comparison for checking or verifying the results of an experiment.
Compare and Contrast mass and weight Mass- The amount of matter in an object is called mass. The SI unit of mass is the kilogram (kg). Weight- Weight is a measure of the gravitational force on an object. The SI unit for force is the newton (N).
Mineral Naturally occurring, inorganic solid with a specific chemical composition and a definite crystalline structure.
Explain what physical properties could be used to tell the difference between Pyrite (Fool’s Gold) and Gold. Pyrite is much harder then real gold. Pyrites streak is a greenish color and gold is gold.
Given the harness of two different minerals and explain what would happen if they were rubbed together. If you rub pyrite and gold together then the pyrite would scratch the gold.
Explain how igneous rocks form. Igneous rocks are called fire rocks and are formed either underground or above ground. Underground, they are formed when magma deep within the Earth becomes trapped in small pockets. As these pockets of magma cool slowly they become igneous rocks.
Major type of rock igneous rock
Extrusive Obsidian
Intrusive Granite
Created by: kindredmcdaniel