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6th Interim Review

E. Science Mid Interim Review (1st Semester)

How are igneous rocks formed? Magma or lava (molten material) cools and hardens
List the processes involved in creating sedimentary rocks weathering, erosion, deposition, compaction and cementation
What conditions must exist for metamorphic rocks to form? Extreme heat and pressure
Explain the differences between intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks Intrusive rocks form when magma cools below the surface slowly, with a coarse-grained texture and large crystals; Extrusive rocks form when lava cools above or on the surface quickly, with a fine-grained texture and small or no visible crystals
Explain the processes involved in the rock cycle Cooling/hardening of molten material, Weathering/Erosion of sediments, Compaction/Cementation of sediments, Melting (heat) and pressure of existing rock
What are the 5 characteristics of a mineral? Naturally occurring, Solid, Inorganic, Definite Chemical Composition, Crystalline Structure
Describe how minerals are used as resources in society Quartz in glass; Gold in jewelry; Talc in powder or soap; Halite in salt
What is an ore? A rock with an economically useful mineral inside
Why are gemstones valuable? Gemstones come in beautiful colors and they are rare
How are minerals related to rocks? All rocks contain two or more minerals
How do fossils form? Organisms die and are buried by sediment which harden
List and describe the different types of fossils trace-signs or organisms' activities; petrified-organism is replaced by minerals; mold-impression left where the organism was buried; cast-copy of what the organism looked like; carbon film-thin coating of carbon from the organism marked on a rock
Explain how life forms have gone through changes on Earth? Organisms that lived in the past were simple and have become more complex
What does the principle of uniformitarianism explain? Geologic processes that occurred in the past occur the same currently, like weathering, erosion, deposition
State the law of superposition Younger rock layers live above older rock layers
Contrast relative and absolute age Relative age-the age of rock layers compared to other surrounding rock layers, ex: "younger" or "older"
Absolute age-the exact age rock layers formed, ex: 200 million years ago
What does the principle of original horizontality state? Sediments are laid down in horizontal layers
Describe how fossils show evidence of Earth's changing surface Fossils show evidence of climate change and there have been marine fossils found on land, indicating these organisms lived in other environments
What is Earth's geologic time scale? A timeline of Earth's history including information about rocks and past life forms divided up into smaller segments of time
How have scientists determined the age of the earth? Absolute dating
What are some of Earth's natural resources? Trees, Oil, Water, Soil
Compare renewable and nonrenewable resources Renewable-resources that form or can be replaced as fast as they are used; Nonrenewable-resources that can not form or be replaced at the rate that they are used
How does the sun influence other energy sources? The sun heats the air which results in wind and the sun drives the water cycle
What are some examples of alternative energy resources? Wind power, Solar energy, Hydroelectric energy, Biomass, Geothermal energy
Give examples of renewable and nonrenewable resources Renewable-solar, wind; Nonrenewable-fossil fuels
What are the three fossil fuels? Coal, Petroleum (Oil), and Natural gas
What are the problems with using fossil fuels? They cause pollution
How can nonrenewable energy resources be conserved? Reduce the amount used and consider alternative resources
Created by: Mrs. Corey
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