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computer definitions

science enrichment

COMPUTER CASE(AKA EXTERNAL SHELL) acts as the outer protective shell or skin of the company
INTERIOR FRAME acts as the skeleton of the computer
MOTHER BOARD the largest circuit board in the computer to which everything is attached-handles all information coming into and going out of the computer
PREFERENCE BATTERY allows computer to keep preferences such as time, wallpapers, and fonts between shut-downs and starts-up
CPU HEAT SINK draws heat from the processor chip and keeps it cool enough to function correctly
CPU HEAT SINK FAN usually sits on top of the CPU heat sink and keeps cool air circulating around the processor chip
INTERIOR COOLING FAN draws cool air into case, keeping internal components at the desired working temperature
MEMORY SLOTS receptacles on the motherboard for expandable short term.working memory (RAM-Random Access Memory) cards
PERIPHERAL SLOTS receptacles of the motherboard for cards of peripheral appliances (devices used outside the computer)
PROCESSOR CHIP Main translator for the computer. Handles all information and changes it so that it can be used by the compeer or understood by operators
USB (UNIFORM SERIAL BUS) PORTAL opening the insertion of a external memory device
FLOPPY DRIVE (A DRIVE) reads and writes to floppy disk using an electromagnetic read/write head
HARD DRIVE Main long term memory storage (REad Only Memory or ROM) of the computer
CD (COMPACT DISK) DRIVE (D DRIVE) Read and write to compact disk using laser
COMPACT DISK (CD) information archival device read by red laser: usually holds one layer of about 700 MB each
DIGITAL VIDEO DISK (DVD) informational archival device read by amplitude-modulate red laser: hold multiple layers of information about 700 MB each
BLUE RAY DISK refers to the color of the laser used to read the archival disk; can pack more information on the disk due to the shorter wavelength of the light used. REad by amplitude modulated blue laser: holds multiple layers of information of over 1 GB each.
ETHERNET/INTERNET CARD circuit board that plugs in to the motherboard that allows access to the internet
VIDEO GRAPHICS ACCELERATOR (VGA) CARD circuit board that plugs in to the motherboard and increases signal quality of the video signal
DUAL INLINE MEMORY MODULE (DIMM) working RAM with memory units on both sides of the circuit board
SINGLE INLINE MEMORY MODULE (SIMM) working RAM with memory units on one side of the circuit board
RANDOM ACCESS MEMORY (RAM) Working memory located in the SIMMS or DIMMS inserted in the motherboard
READS ONLY MEMORY (ROM) Permanent memory located in the hard drive
POWER SOURCE/CONVERTER Power source for the computer: converse 120 volts into micro-current (usually between 8 to 12 volts) that can be used by the computer without damaging internal components
BASIC-IN-OUT-SYSTEM (BIOS) small memory chip on the motherboard where software is stored. This software provides instructions for booting the unit and keyboard control and is used to identify and configure hardware including drives and memory
CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT (CPU) term used to refer to a computer, but is actually the combination of a hard drive and motherboard working together.
NETWORK a collection of terminals, computers, servers, and components which allows for the easy flow of data and use of resources between one another
WIDE AREA NETWORK (WAN) a computer network which spans great distances. Usually connects many LANs together
LOCAL AREA NETWORK (LAN) network which is geographically limited (typically to 1km radius) allowing easy interconnections of computers within adjacent buildings
INPUT DRIVE peripheral used to transfer data from outside world into a computer system (microphone, scanner, keyboard, mouse)
OUTPUT DEVICES used to transfer data out of the computer in the form of test, images, sounds or other media (monitor, printer, speaker)
HARDWARE the physical, touchable, material parts of a computer or other system; any piece of machinery or circuitry used with the computer
SOFTWARE any written instructions used to influence the performance of the computer
WETWARE human nervous system, as opposed to electronic computer
MALWARE software, such as a virus, that causes damage to other software
OPERATING SYSTEM software that provides instructions for the manner in which a computer performs its functions
VIRUS program or piece of code that "infects" one or more other programs by embedding a copy of itself in them, so that they "trojan horses" or "worms"
FILE EXTENSION identifier at the end of a file's name that tells the computer that form that the file is to be saved (doc, jpg, bmp, exe)
PERPHERAL any single device that is connected to the computer by a cable or though the internet and shares information with the computer
WYSIWYG computer term from the '60's, meaning "What you see is what you get"
Created by: mixela23