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Chapter 4

State and Local Gov IDs

at-large elections elections in which candidates for office must complete throughout the jurisdiction as a whole
balanced budget a budget in which the legislature balances expenditures with expected revenues with no deficit
*expenditures to spend funds
*deficit lack or shortage
charter a document that, like constitutions, specifies the basic policies, procedures and institutions of a municipality
City Council the legislature in a city government
commission form of local government in which several officials are elected to top positions that have both legislative and executive responsibilities
Dillon's Rule a court ruling that local governments to not have any inherent sovereignty but instead must be authorized by state government
district-based election election in which candidates run for an office that represents only the voters of a specific district within the jurisdiction
domestic dependent nation a type of sovereignty that places an American Indian tribe in the US outside the authority of state governments but reliant on the federal government for interpretation and application of treaty provisions
line-item veto the authority of a chief executive to delete part of a bill passed by the legislature that involves taxing or spending. Ruled unconstitutional by the US Supreme Court
mayor chief elected executive of a city
Missouri (Merit) Plan a method of selecting judges in which a governor must appoint someone from a list provided by an independent panel. Judges are then kept in office if they get a majority of “yes” votes in general elections
municipality a government with general responsibilities, such as a city, town or village, which is created in response to the emergence of a relatively densely populated area
nonpartisan election a contest in which political parties do not nominate candidates and ballots do not include any party identification of those running for office
pardon an executive grant providing restoration of all rights and privileges of citizenship to a specific individual charged or convicted of a crime
parole the authority of a governor to release a prisoner before his or her full sentence has been completed and to specify conditions that must be met as a part of the release
political machine an organization designed to solicit votes from certain neighborhoods or communities for a particular political party in return for services and jobs if that party wins
Progressive Movement advocated measures to destroy political machines and instead have voters participate directly in the nomination of candidates and the establishment of public policy
progressive tax the tax level increases with the wealth, or ability of an individual or business to pay
regressive tax the tax level increases as the wealth or ability of an individual or business to pay decreases
reservation land land designated in a treaty that is under the authority of an American Indian nation and is exempt from most state laws and taxes
segregated funds money that comes in from a certain tax or fee and then is restricted to a specific use, such as gasoline tax that is used for road maintenance
special district a local government that is responsible for a particular function, such as schools, water, sewerage or parks
term limits restrictions that exist in some states about how long an individual may serve in state or local elected office
trust land land owned by an American Indian nation and designated by the federal Bureau of Indian Affairs as exempt from most state laws and taxes
trust relationship the legal obligation of the federal government to protect the interest of American Indian tribes
referendum an election whereby the state legislature submits proposed legislation or state constitutional amendments to the voters for approval
Created by: jesisarahsteph