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G Chapter 2 Vocabula

vocabulary from pages 34 - 53

Mechanical or chemical surface processes that break rock into smaller and smaller pieces. Weathering
Physical processes that break rock apart without changing its chemical makeup. Mechanical weathering
Mechanical weathering process that occurs when water freezes in the cracks of rocks and expands, causing the rock to break apart. Ice wedging
Chemical reactions dissolve the minerals in rocks or change them into different minerals. Chemical weathering
Chemical weathering process that occurs when some minerals are exposed to oxygen and water over time. Oxidation
Average weather pattern in an area over a long period of time. Climate
Mixture of weathered rock and mineral fragments, decayed organic matter, water, and air that can take thousands of years to develop. Soil
Dark-colored, decayed organic matter that supplies nutrients to plants and is found mainly in topsoil. Humus
Each layer in a soil profile. Horizon
Vertical section of soil layers, each of which is a horizon. Soil profile
Twigs, leaves, and other organic matter that help prevent erosion and hold water and may eventually be changed into humus by decomposing organisms. Litter
Removal of minerals that have been dissolved in water. Leaching
Method for reducing soil erosion; plant stalks are left in the field after harvesting and the next year's crop is planted within the stalks without plowing. No-till farming
Planting along the natural contours of the land to reduce soil erosion. Contour farming
Farming method used to reduce erosion on steep slopes. Terracing
Created by: tferraro