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Chemistry of Life

Basic and Beyond Basic Terms

TermDefinition
carbon backbone element in macromolecules important to life [B]
biogeochemical cycles the cycle of matter (such as carbon, nitrogen and water) between abiotic and biotic factors. [B]
carbohydrates (polymer/monomer) starch and cellulose are made out of sugar [B]
carbohydrates (elements) carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) [B]
carbohydrates (function) energy storage and structure [B]
proteins (polymer/monomer) proteins are made out of amino acids [B]
proteins (elements) carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N) [B]
proteins (function) acting as enzymes, antibodies and building blocks of the body [B]
nucleic acids (polymer/monomer) DNA and RNA are made out of nucleotides [B]
nucleic acids (elements) carbon (C), hydrogen (H), oxygen (O), nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) [B]
nucleic acids (function) molecule of heredity and related functions [B]
lipid (elements) a fat containing carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) [B]
water molecule (2 characteristics) polarity and hydrogen bonding [BB]
cohesion a property of water in which water molecules bind with water molecules by hydrogen bonds (causes surfaces tension). [BB]
adhesion a property of water in which water molecules bind with other molecules [BB]
high specific heat a property of water in which a large amount of heat must be absorbed or lost for 1 g of water to change its temperature 1°C [BB]
universal solvent a property of water in which it is able to dissolve many other substances [BB]
heat of vaporization a property of water: the amount of heat required to change a certain amount of water into a gas [BB]
heat of fusion a property of water: the amount of heat required to change a certain amount of ice into liquid water [BB]
thermal conductivity a property of water: the rate at which heat passes through (conducts) water [BB]
R group part of an amino acid (can be hydrophobic, hydrophilic or ionic) whose interactions determine structure and function of that part of a protein [BB]
phospholipid the molecules that form the bilayer of cell membranes, having a phosphate group (hydrophilic) and two lipid tails (hydrophobic) [BB]
dehydration synthesis a chemical reaction in which two monomers covalently join with the loss of a water molecule [BB]
hydrolysis a chemical reaction in which a monomer separates from a polymer with the addition of a water molecule [BB]
Created by: cfigueiredo