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ES 03 Rocks & Cycle

Terms associated with the three rock types and the rock cycle.

DescriptionTerm
naturally-occurring inorganic crystalline solid with definite composition mineral
solid in Earth's crust made of a mixture of minerals rock
the three rock types igneous, sedimentary, metamorphic
rock that forms when magma or lava cools and crystallizes igneous rock
slushy mixture of molten rock, dissolved gases, and (solid) mineral crystals magma
the most common element in Earth's crust and the magma from which it forms oxygen
the second most common element in Earth's crust and the magma from which it forms silicon
the most abundant mineral compound in magma silica
chemical formula for silica SiO2
mineral name for silica quartz
dark, very fluid, most common magma type that is about 50% silica basaltic (mafic)
lightest, thickest (more viscous) magma type that is about 70% silica rhyolitic (felsic)
four factors that affect the formation of magma (T,P,W&M content) temperature, pressure, water content, mineral content
as you go deeper into Earth's crust, temperature _?_ increases
as you go deeper into Earth's crust, pressure _?_ increases
both partial melting and partial cooling (crystallization) form magma containing minerals of _?_ melting point low
the diagram that shows which minerals crystallize from magma at specific temperatures as it cools is call Bowen's _?_ Bowen's Reaction Series
describes igneous rock that forms from magma that cooled slowly below Earth's surface intrusive (plutonic)
describes igneous rock that forms from lava that cooled quickly at Earth's surface extrusive (volcanic)
describes the TEXTURE of igneous rocks that have larger grains because they cooled slowly beneath Earth's surface coarse
describes the TEXTURE of igneous rocks that have small grains because they cooled quickly at Earth's surface fine
describes the TEXTURE of igneous rocks such as obsidian that cools so fast, no grains are detectable glassy
describes the TEXTURE of igneous rocks that contain large grains surrounded by material with fine grains (cooled slowly, then suddenly quickly) porphyritic
describes the TEXTURE of igneous rocks that contain bubbles/holes where gas bubbles were trapped as the molten rock quickly solidified vesicular
which of these four igneous resources often produces valuable metals: quartz veins, pegmatites, kimberlites, granite? quartz veins
which of these four igneous resources often produces strong, durable materials for construction: quartz veins, pegmatites, kimberlites, granite? granite
physical/chemical processes that break rocks into smaller pieces weathering
smaller pieces (wide size range) that remain after rock is weathered sediments
process of removing sediments from one location and moving them to another erosion
what are four agents (causes) of erosion? [GWWG] gravity, (moving) water, wind, glaciers
process of sediments settling, often to the bottom of a body of water deposition
which agent of erosion only moves small sediments wind
if water is moving faster, the sediments it moves can be _?_ larger
in general, the process by which sediments are changed into rocks lithification
process by which sediment layers are squeezed into rock due to the weight of layers piling up above them compaction
process by which dissolved minerals precipitate out of ground water (as it evaporates) and glues sediments together cementation
in general, the layering of sediments in sedimentary rock is called _?_ bedding
sedimentary rock bedding that goes fine (top) to coarse (bottom) is called _?_ bedding graded (bedding)
sedimentary rock bedding that is inclined, often from forming along the side of a sand dune, is called _?_ bedding cross (bedding)
small ridges in sedimentary rock formed by actions of wind, wave, or currents ripple marks
describes a sedimentary ripple mark formed by water moving back and forth, so the ripple is shaped the same way on both sides symmetrical
describes a sedimentary ripple mark formed by water (or wind) moving in only one direction and, so the ripple has a different shape/steepness on each side asymmetrical
describes the shape of sediments that have been transported over a great distance so they are worn down smoothly round
describes the shape of sediments that have been transported over only a short distance so they are more pointed angular (sharp)
remains/impressions of past life, found in sedimentary rock (heat/pressure destroy them in other two rock types) fossils
most common sedimentary rock type, formed from lithification of loose sediments clastic (detrital)
example of coarse grained clastic sedimentary rock containing rounded gravel sediments cemented together conglomerate
example of coarse grained clastic sedimentary rock containing sharp/angular gravel sediments cemented together breccia
example of clastic sedimentary rock consisting of medium (sand size) grains deposited in slower water, often containing ripples and bedding, which sometimes is porous enough to contain water, etc sandstone
examples of clastic, fine-grained sedimentary rock containing tiny grains in thin layers, and is formed in 'still' water siltstone/shale
describes sedimentary rock that is formed from minerals crystallizing and settling from a concentrated solution, often as it evaporates (not from grains) chemical (OR evaporite)
describes sedimentary rocks such as limestone and coal formed from remains of once-living organisms biochemical (OR organic)
rocks formed by action of heat (without melting) and pressure acting on already-existing rocks metamorphic
in general, what are the two agents (heat) of metamorphism? heat, pressure
describes the TEXTURE of metamorphic rocks that contain (colored) layers/bands of minerals foliated
two examples of foliated metamorphic rock (that have interesting names) schist, gneiss
describes the TEXTURE of metamorphic rocks that contain 'blocky' crystals, but not usually any bands of minerals (ex: marble, quartzite) nonfoliated
as temperature and pressure applied increases, a metamorphic rock's 'grade' _?_ increases
type of metamorphism that occurs over large areas around where two tectonic plates collide regional metamorphism
type of metamorphism that occurs when a magma intrusion touches and alters nearby solid rock contact metamorphism
type of metamorphism that occurs when very hot water reacts with and alters mineral composition in rocks hydrothermal metamorphism
a diagram that shows/describes how each rock type can come into existence or be change into another rock type (including back to its own type) the rock cycle
Created by: goakley