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454896 Chapter 7

Crime in America

QuestionAnswer
What are alternatives to incarceration? Reserving prisiĆ³n sentences for those incapable to be treated safely in the community
Brady Act the act requiring background checks to be performed when anyone is to purchase a gun. This act was amended (1993) when former White House press secretary (James Brady) who was shot and paralyzed by a bullet that was intended to hit President Ronald Reagan
Implied Consent Law A driver agrees to submit a BAC test in exchange for the privilege of driving. This occurs in some states. Refusal could result in immediate/automatic suspension of license for certain period, even if found Not Guilty for DWI.
Drug Courts courts that embody a humane philosophy of treating drug offenders in that they offer treatment instead of punishment.(submit to drug testing on a regular basis, enroll in court-supervised drug treatment, stay off drugs = offender could stay out of jail.
Megan's Law All convicted sex offenders must be registered on file. This helps maintain public safety & inform society. Created (1990s) when Megan Kanka was abducted, sexually molested & murdered by her neighbor, who was a sex offender (unknown to her family)
Recidivism Law for punishing repeat offenders of drug crimes. This is enforced throughout more than 40 states. Usually involve long sentences.
Crime on Campus (2000) students 12-18 experienced nearly 2 Million violence/property crimes while at school. College campus crimes include assaults, murders, rape, robberies, burglaries and motor vehicle thefts. Many crimes are influenced through alcohol and drugs.
Gangs groups generally closed to the general public, for certain common business or non-profit purposes that may include violent criminal activity.
Crime Clock a representation of the relative frequency of which crimes happen and how often they do. This "clock" shows the average time interval between occurrence of property and violence crimes in the U.S.
Crime Index a representation of the number of crimes reported and arrests made within a certain time period.
Gun Control Law that prohibits certain persons (convicted felons, minors and illegal aliens) from buying or possessing weapons. Requires serial #s on all firearms & ammo, establishes a license fee for all dealers, prohibits mail-order/interstate sale of handguns.
Incarceration imprisonment by the state or federal government
Community Policing a strategy where the community works actively with the local police to lower the crime rate in the area (cooperation)
Substance Abuse the harmful over use of chemicals like drugs or alcohol. Alcohol is the most widely abused substance.
Drunk Driving general terms to refer to driving while intoxicated (DWI) or driving under the influence (DUI). If person drives w/ a blood alcohol content (BAC) between 0.01 g/dl & 0.09 g/dl the person is impaired. If BAC is 0.10 g/dl +, the person is intoxicated.
Controlled Substance Act the Federal drug law, that classifies drugs into 5 groups, depending on medical use (if any), potential for abuse, and capability to create physical or psychological addiction. The penalties/sanctions are different for each of the 5 groups.
Restitution the act of requiring criminals to pay back or otherwise compensate the victims of their crimes. (paying back damages & losses for stolen property)
Good Samaritan Laws laws that relieve bystanders from most civil liability when they help people in danger, but not requires bystanders to help.
Created by: 454896