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Clinical Research

Clinical Research Quiz 1

TermDefinition
Evidence based practice (EBP) use of best evidence to make patient care decisions; evidence from nursing & health professional research ex: What does evidence say is best approach to solving a clinical problem?
Basic research systematic inquiry using discipline methods to answer questions & solve problems; ultimate goal: develop, refine, & expand knowledge
Nursing research systematic inquiry to develop trustworthy evidence about important issues in nursing profession like: -nursing practice, -education, -administration, - informatics
Clinical nursing research research designed to guide nursing practice and to improve the heath & quality-of-life of nurses' clients
Consumers of nursing research nurses who read research reports/summaries for relevant findings that might affect their practice
Producer of nursing research nurses who actively participate in creating evidence (for practice) by doing research
Journal club a nursing research activity involving mtgs among nurses to discuss and critique research articles
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR) launched 1993; helped put nursing research into mainstream of research activities
Replication repeating
Systematic review a rigorous synthesis of research findings on a particular research question; using systematic sampling & data collection procedures & a formal protocol
Inductive reasoning the process of developing generalizations from specific observations; ex: observing anxious behavior of (specific)hospitalized children and concluding that (in general) children’s separation from their parents is stressful
Deductive reasoning process of developing specific predictions from general principles; ex: assuming separation anxiety occurs in hospitalized children (general), we may predict that (specific) children in a hospital whose parents don’t room-in will manifest stress symptoms
Paradigm a way of looking at natural phenomena –a world view- that encompasses a set of philosophical assumptions and that guides one’s approach to inquiry; ex: what’s the nature of reality? What’s the relationship between the inquirer & those being studie
Logical positivism philosophy underlying t/traditional scientific approach; a philosophical mvmnt where all meaningful statements are either analytic or conclusively verifiable or @ least confirmable by observation & experiment & metaphysical theories are meaningless
Assumption a basic principle that’s believed to be true without proof or verification
Determinism an assumption of positivists’ belief that phenomena aren’t haphazard, but rather have antecedent causes; ex: if person has cerebrovascular accident, positive tradition assumes there must be one or more reasons/causes that can be potentially identified
Positivist paradigm a form/viewpoint of research where activity is directed at understanding the underlying causes of phenomena
Naturalist paradigm (constructivist paradigm) an alternative paradigm to the traditional positivist paradigm stating there are multiple interpretations of reality; the goal of research: understand how individuals construct reality within their context; often associated with qualitative research
Quantitative research the investigation of phenomena that lend themselves to precise measurement and quantification, often involving a rigorous and controlled design; most closely allied with positivism
Qualitative research the investigation of phenomena, typically in an in-depth and holistic fashion, through the collection of rich narrative materials using a flexible research design; often allied with naturalistic paradigm
Scientific method a set of orderly, disciplined procedures used to acquire information; focuses on QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH; often uses deductive reasoning
Systematic a quantitative research style of which the investigator progresses logically through a serious of steps, according to a specified plan of action
Scientific method a set of orderly, disciplined procedures used to acquire information; focuses on QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH; often use deductive reasoning
Empirical evidence evidence by quantitative researchers; rooted in objective reality & through senses rather than researchers’ personal beliefs. i.e. sight, hear, taste, touch, smell (ex; presence/absence of skin inflammation, pt’s anxiety level, birth wt)
Generalizability degree to which findings can be generalized to individuals other than just those who participated in the study
Field the €œnaturalistic setting where naturalistic (constructivist) inquiry takes place often over an extended time period
Applied research solution-seeking research for probs. & important for EBP; designed to show how general principles of human behavior & biophysiologic processes can be used to solve problems in nursing practice; ex: evaluationg effectiveness a unit-specific intervention to
Evidence hierarchy a ranked arrangement of the validity & dependability of evidence based on rigor of the method of production; traditional evidence hierarchy is appropriate mostly for cause-probing research
Outcomes research research designed to document the effectiveness of healthcare services and the end of results of patient care
Theory an abstract generalization that presents a systematic explanation about the relationships among phenomena
Research utilization (RU) the use of findings from a study/set of studies in a practical application that’s not related to the original research; the emphasis of RU is translating new knowledge into real-world applications; it’s more narrow than EBP; ex: how can I put this new kno
Systematic reviews the strongest possible evidence comes from systematic reviews that integrate findings from multiple randomized controlled trials using rigorous, methodical procedures
Meta-analysis a method of integrating quantitative findings statistically; findings from multiple studies on the same topic are combined and analyzed statistically; ex: meta-analysis on effectiveness of fear of falling treatment programs for the elderly. 6 studies inte
metasynthesis The integration of qualitative research on a specific topic that are themselves interpretive syntheses of narrative information; metasynthesis: amplifies and interprets info –VS— meta-analysis: reduces info down to one “result”; ex: metasynthesis of 13 st
Clinical practice guidelines guidelines based on systematic reviews that give specific recommendations for evidence-based decision making; designed to influence what clinicians do; they are “necessity-driven,” balancing benefit & risk of certain practices
Created by: Fukanwa