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Cert - GI


What are the three accessory organs of the GI system? 1. Liver 2. Pancreas 3. Biliary System
What is the function of the GI system? Digestion and absorption (the movement of nutrients into the blood system)
What is the Cullen's sign? Bruise around the umbilicus - this indicates abdominal bleeding.
How long should you listen to bowel sounds for? 2-5 minutes per each quadrant.
What is the normal frequentcy of bowel sounds that should occur in a minute? 5-35x per minute
When can you state that there is an absence of bowel sounds? No activity for a FULL 5 minutes.
What site is the best location for listening to bowel sounds? RLQ
What is Bilirubin? product of RBC breakdown
What is the normal range of total Bili? 0.3 - 1.3 mg/dl
What is the normal range of direct Bili? 0.1 - 1.3 mg/dl
What is the normal range of indirect Bili? 0.1 - 1.0 mg/dl
What does an elevated direct bili value indicate? RBC destruction is accelerated but the liver is able to convert.
What does an elevated indirect bili value indicate? Liver is unable to do its work of converting - more indicative of liver dysfunction.
What is the normal range of AST? 7 - 40 U/L
What is the normal range of ALT? 5 - 36 U/L
What is the normal range of LDH? 92 - 200 U/L
What does elevated pancreatic enzymes indicate? damage to the organ
What is the normal range of Amylase? 25 - 125 U/L
What is the normal range of Lipase? 14 -280 U/L
What is the normal range of prothrombin time? 12 - 15 seconds
CEA is typicall elevated with? Colorectal cancers
Dyspepsia is a condition that can lead to? Peptic ulcer
What is dyspepsia? Imbalance between protective mucosa and the effects of acid, pepsin or can be the direct effects of drugs.
What is a Peptic ulcer? It is a discontinuity of the mucosa i.e. erosin in any part of the upper GI tract (esophagus, stomach, duodenum)
What can cause stress ulcer? 1. long term hospital stays 2. trauma 3. extensive sugeries
Pain related to duodenal ulcers mostly occur when? 1. at night 2. 2-4 hours after meals
Zollinger Ellision syndrome? "hypergastremia" caused b a pancreatic tumor that secretes an elevated level of gastrin.
Where and when is pain commonly seen with patients with gastric ulcers? High in the epigastic area and occurs with eating.
Peptic ulcers are typically seen where? 80% found in the duodenum.
What is the tx for peptic ulcers? treat mild pain with antacids, omit causative agents such as ASA, NSAIDS.
What complications can occur with peptic ulcers? bleeding, perforation (emergent - tx with antibiotics, fluids. This requires surgical repair)
What is GERD? reflux of gastric contents into the esophagus.
What causes GERD? 1. obesity 2. hiatal hernia 3. gastric emptying 4. incompetent lower esophageal sphincter
What are the symptoms of GERD? 1. dyspepsia 2. heartburn 3. hoarse voice
Tx for GERD? H2 blockers, PPI, meal timing
What is used to diagnosis GERD? History, UGI, Endoscopy
What complications can occur with GERD? Barrett's Esophagus
Why is Barrett's esophagus a concern? The consistent reflux can lead to metaplasia of the cells of the esphogus which can lead to cancer
What pt's are at high risk for GI bleed? 1. chronic renal failure 2. diabetes 3. COPD 4. liver disease 5. PUD 6. Heart disease
What causes UGI bleed? erosive ulcerations or lesions, varices.
Mallory Weiss Tear? UGI bleed associated with ETOH consumption and the use of ASA.
What are the symptoms of GI bleed? 1. frank bloo in stool or melena 2. coffee ground emesis 3. volume loss (elevated HR, decrease BP and H&H)
Tx for GI bleed? 1. fluid/blood replacement 2. correct the cause 3. pain control
Melena indicates what type of bleed? slow bleed or further up in the GI tract
Created by: lydia.koo